Friday, April 3, 2020
Atomic Mass From Atomic Abundance Chemistry Problem You may have noticed the atomic mass of an element isnt the same as the sum of the protons and neutrons of a single atom. This is because elements exist as multiple isotopes. While each atom of an element has the same number of protons, it can have a variable number of neutrons. The atomic mass on the periodic table is a weighted average of the atomic masses of atoms observed in all samples of that element. You can use the atomic abundance to calculate the atomic mass of any element sample if you know the percentage of each isotope. Atomic Abundance Example Chemistry Problem The element boron consists of two isotopes, 105B and 115B. Their masses, based on the carbon scale, are 10.01 and 11.01, respectively. The abundance of 105B is 20.0% and the abundance of 115B is 80.0%. What is the atomic mass of boron? Solution: The percentages of multiple isotopes must add up to 100%. Apply the following equation to the problem: atomic mass (atomic mass X1) Ã · (% of X1)/100 (atomic mass X2) Ã · (% of X2)/100 ...where X is an isotope of the element and % of X is the abundance of the isotope X. Substitute the values for boron in this equation: atomic mass of B (atomic mass of 105B Ã · % of 105B/100) (atomic mass of 115B Ã · % of 115B/100)atomic mass of B (10.01Ã · 20.0/100) (11.01Ã · 80.0/100)atomic mass of B 2.00 8.81atomic mass of B 10.81 Answer: The atomic mass of boron is 10.81. Note that this is the value listed in the periodic table for the atomic mass of boron. Although the atomic number of boron is 10, its atomic mass is nearer to 11 than to 10, reflecting the fact that the heavier isotope is more abundant than the lighter isotope. Why Arent Electrons Included? The number and mass of electrons is not included in an atomic mass calculation because the mass of the electron is infinitesimal compared to that of a proton or neutron. Basically, electrons dont significantly affect the mass of an atom.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Lesson Plan Essay Example Lesson Plan Essay Lesson Plan Essay oho 5 A letter of greater value subtract from it. L=50 100 xx=90 A letter of equal or lesser value add to it LSI=III Pupils Activity Yes Maam (The students start to pray) Good Morning Maam! Maam the absent today is student 2. We dont know Maam! If the nearest number is less than 5 and exactly 5 it will become lower and if the nearest number is more than 5 it will become higher. Yes Maam! Maam Clock Student 13, grade year IV. Evaluation A. Write the Roman Numerals for each Hindu Arabic Numeral. Write the Hindu Arabic Numeral for each Roman Numerals. 4. 3, 498 5. 5, 859 V. Generalization: What have you learned today? Today we learned about Roman Numerals. What is the Roman numeral of 5, 10, 100, 500, 1000 L d =500 1000 = M VI. Assignment: Read and answer the following. 1 . President Stared was proclaimed as president of the Philippine in the year 1998. What is 1998 in Roman Numerals? 2. The first Gad Panamanian Algal in Ballasts was aimed to recognize writers with significant contributions to literature in Army Philippine language in the year 1988. What is 1998 in Roman Numerals?
Friday, February 21, 2020
The attitude of Saudi students in Brighton towards teaching English - Essay Example This section presents the results and analysis of the data gathered as well as their interpretations. A questionnaire made up of eight close-ended items was built and administered to Saudi students in Brighton, United Kingdom. The results were statistically treated to ascertain percentages, means and standard deviations and interpreted.Numerous studies showed that FLES does not have a negative effect on studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic achievements and their first language. Attitudinal studies that dealt with Arab studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude towards learning EFL showed that Arab students are instrumentally motivated to learn English. An attitudinal study was conducted to measure Saudi secondary public schools studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude towards EFL. The study revealed that the students desired to speak English for instrumental reasons and also wanted it to be included in the curriculum.With respect to whether English should be introduced in the elementary state schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ curriculum or not , the results indicate that an extremely high percentage of respondents support the statement. 52.6% strongly agree and 63.8% agree while one participant is neutral (5.3%) and one disagrees (5.3%). The mean score is 4.37 and the standard deviation is 0.831. Therefore, it can be said that the majority of the participants encourage introducing English as a foreign language in the elementary state schools. Participants also support the statement that learning English will not have a negative outcome on studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ identity.
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
HUMAN RIGHTS - Essay Example What are Human Rights? Human Rights can broadly be defined as a set of various international norms that have been designed to help in the protection of all people all over the world from any form of severe social, legal and political abuses. Common examples of human rights generally include the right of an individual not to face any torture, the right to have freedom of religion as well as the undeniable right for one to have affair trial in the event that they happen to be charged with a crime (Orend 2002). The main sources of the current versions of human rights include the International Bill of Rights which emerged as the United Nations, 1948b Universal Declaration of Human Rights and various treaties and human rights documents (Mcneill, St. Clair and St. Clair 2009). Various human rights treaties such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) have resorted to creating various treaty bodies to help them effectively monitor the implementation and compliance of these treat ies (Orend 2002). How and why did Human Rights Enter the International Political Process since WWII? After the horrors that were witnessed during the Second World War, there was a broad consensus that emerged at the international level that was keen in demanding that the individual human being should essentially be placed under the protection of the international community. The atrocities that had been committed against certain specific ethic groups as a result of anarchy had shown that it was possible for national governments to gravely fail to protect their citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s liberty and lives. As such, since it had been established that the provision of protective mechanisms at the domestic level alone was not enough to provide enough sufficiently stable safeguards, it was thus necessary to entrust the planned new world organization with the role of guaranteeing the enforcement of human rights on a universal scale. Some Latin American countries requested that a full code of human r ights be included in the United Nations Charter at the 1945 San Francisco conference so as to promote the Universalism of these rights. Due to various time constraints it was not possible for the motion to successful at that stage. The commission on Human Rights created a draft of the International Bill of Rights and drafted the Universal Declaration of Human rights, which was adopted by the General Assembly on December 10th, 1948. This Declaration of Human Rights and two UN international treaties are what are collectively commonly referred to as the International Bill of Human Rights (Mcneill, St. Clair and St. Clair 2009). What has Changed about the Character of International Relations since WWII Since the end of the Second World War, there have been rampant changes in the nature and content of international relations. Some of these changes include the fact that the politico-geographic setting of the world has undergone major changes. This factor has been further emphasized by dec olonization that lead to the materialization of an enlarged number of new Sovereign nations that seek to assert themselves in the international community of nations (Fry 2002). After the Second World War, the number of nations that where members of the U.N. was seen to increase from 51
Monday, January 27, 2020
Bidding Strategy of Construction Companies Introduction This report aims to assess the value to construction companies of having a defined bidding strategy that is complied with when tendering for new work. The majority of construction companies have a bidding strategy of some form whether it is specified or not, in the instance that a company does not engage in a process of selection when approaching new work then they will offer little value as they would be pricing every job available regardless of the contract value, location, programme or their previous experience of that type of work. At the time of writing the UK economy (in particular the construction industry) remains gripped by the instability and uncertainty created by the financial market turmoil that occurred throughout 2007 2008 leading to the greatest economic crisis and subsequent recession since the Great Depression of the 1930s (Brunnermeier, Markus K., 2009). As such construction companies are faced with a market place as competitive as any in living memory, for most turnover and profits have dropped significantly and this subsequently applies extra emphasis to the importance of the tendering process. The report will firstly review the literature available on bidding strategies in the construction industry with a brief review of the effects of the recession on contractors bidding prices. The literature review will then be advanced upon by conducting an assessment of the bidding strategy utilised by Dawn Construction Ltd, a main contractor operating in the central belt of Scotland. 2.0 Bidding Strategy 2.1 Definition A bidding strategy can be described as a wide range of applied techniques and timing in order to achieve predetermined objectives. Brook (2008) offers the following analogy It is interesting to note that in military terms, the word strategy means the skilful management of an army in such a way as to deceive the enemy and win a campaign. In business the stated objectives can sometimes be achieved by deceiving the opposition but principally the specified objective is to be successful in winning contracts at prices which would allow the organisation to carry out the work profitably In effect a bidding strategy is the decision by a company on which work to price for and the level of profit to incorporate in order to successfully secure the project and maintain the businesses financial security. 2.2 The Tender Process Under traditional circumstances the tender process for a contractor commences with the clients invitation to tender. Upon receipt the contractors response will be shaped by several factors, ultimately though the volume of available work will determine the eagerness of the contractor to price the tender. Very few contractors will actually outright decline the opportunity to price work for a reputable client, in the instance where the contractor does not want to price a tender for whatever reason it is more likely that he will price the work using uncompetitive rates in order to ensure they do not win the contract.(Smith, 1995) This practice is commonly referred to as cover pricing and the primary objective of it is for the contractor to avoid work that he does not want to undertake without insulting the client and being removed from his future tender lists. Although cover pricing was made illegal in 2000, it is still regularly employed by contractors who differentiate between submitti ng a price that is non-competitive and the act of colluding with others in a bid-rigging process. (Bingham, 2009) 2.3 Decision to Tender Prior to committing to pricing a project a contractor must carefully consider his decision to tender as every job he prices costs the company money and reduces the resources available to price other work. Some contractors engage in a grading system when they receive a tender (i.e. a grading range of 1-4), this is in order to prioritise enquiries and put emphasis on winning the types of projects best suited to the company. Others prefer to approach each tender with the aspiration of winning the contract, allowing their price to be influenced only by perceived risk and relevant market factors. Where circumstances change during the bidding process perhaps the contractor wins another contract unexpectedly this can be taken into account at adjudication stage. (Cook Williams, 2004) Cooke Williams (2004) cite the following as key factors in influencing a contractors decision to tender: General Is it our kind of work? What is the current workload? Working Capital Is there sufficient working capital to fund the project? What will be the effect on company financial resources? Availability of Resources Do we have the resources available to price? Do we have the site labour available to undertake? Are suitable subcontractors available? Location Is the project located within our trading area? What management and control problems will there be with a contract located some miles from head office? Size Type of Work What is the monetary value of the project? Is the contract too big for the company to undertake? How did the company perform on similar types of work in the past? Subcontract element What is the extent and value of the contractors work in the project compared with the subcontract element? Is the main contractor simply being asked to manage a number of subcontractors? Is a reasonable mark-up on subcontractors likely? General Is it our kind of work does it fit into strategic plan? What is the current workload in both the contracts division and the estimating section? Do we have the financial and management resources to undertake the work? Working Capital Is sufficient working capital available to fund the project? What will be the effect on company financial resources? The working capital required to fund a Ã £500,000.00 project will be approximately 15-20% of the monetary value at the peak funding month (say Ã £100,000-Ã £150,000) Availability of Resources General management personnel (e.g. contracts managers, planning engineers, quantity surveyors) Site management (e.g. site agents, foremen/gangers, site engineers) Labour and plant Subcontractors are suitable subcontractors available and what is their resource situation? Location Is the project located within our trading area? What management and control problems will there be with a contract located some miles from head office? Size Type of Work What is the monetary value of the project? Is the contract too big for the company to undertake? Taking on a project which is too big could be damaging to future planning and growth What impact will there be on the viability of the business if the contract fails to make an adequate margin? If a contractor with an annual turnover of Ã £10 million wins a Ã £4 million contract and this project makes a loss, the whole business could be put at risk. A major project could give the company severe liquidity problems How did the company perform on similar types of work in the past? Bibliography Construction planning programming Control Brian Cooke Peter Williams Finance Control for Construction Chris March
Sunday, January 19, 2020
I am going to prove that in the play Macbeth, a symbol of blood is portrayed often(and with different meanings), and that it is a symbol that is developed until it is the dominating theme of the play towards the end of it. To begin with, I found the word "blood", or different forms of it forty-two times (ironically, the word fear is used forty-two times), with several other passages dealing with the symbol. Perhaps the best way to show how the symbol of blood changes throughout the play, is to follow the character changes in Macbeth. First he is a brave honoured soldier, but as the play progresses, he becomes a treacherous person who has become identified with death and bloodshed and shows his guilt in different forms. The first reference of blood is one of honour, and occurs when Duncan sees the injured sergeant and says "What bloody man is that?". This is symbolic of the brave fighter who been injured in a valiant battle for his country. In the next passage, in which the sergeant says "Which smok''d with bloody execution", he is referring to Macbeth''s braveness in which his sword is covered in the hot blood of the enemy. After these few references to honour, the symbol of blood now changes to show a theme of treachery and treason. Lady Macbeth starts this off when she asks the spirits to "make thick my blood,". What she is saying by this, is that she wants to make herself insensitive and remorseless for the deeds which she is about to commit. Lady Macbeth knows that the evidence of blood is a treacherous symbol, and knows it will deflect the guilt from her and Macbeth to the servants when she says "smear the sleepy grooms with blood.", and "If he do bleed, I''ll gild the faces of the grooms withal, for it must seem their guilt." When Banquo states "and question this most bloody piece of work," and Ross says "is''t known who did this more than bloody deed?", they are both inquiring as to who performed the treacherous acts upon Duncan. When Macbeth is speaking about Malcolm and Donalbain, he refers to them as "bloody cousins" A final way, and perhaps the most vivid use of the symbol blood, is of the theme of guilt. First Macbeth hints at his guilt when he says "Will all great Neptune''s ocean wash this blood clean from my hand?", meaning that he wondered if he would ever be able to forget the dastardly deed that he had committed. Then the ghost of Banquo, all gory, and bloody comes to
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Thomas, give rise to strident yet silent clues, which will help understand some of the underlying roots that drove Bigger Thomas to submit to a life of criminal activities. The first aspect that contributes to Mr.. Thomas' downfall Is the brutal and unfair racial perceptions of his time. Bigger Thomas is accused of a crime which he did not commit. The rape of a white wealthy woman named Mary. Although Bigger Thomas did not commit the rape, he will always be accused of such behavior for being black. As stated by Bigger himself: Ã¢â¬ All those white men In a group, guns In their hands, ant be wrong.I do not know of what but I know that I am no goodÃ¢â¬ . Richard Wright wants to show that although what occurs to Bigger Thomas is strictly accidental and innocent, the white man's oppression has the power to turn any black man into a beast, a rapist, and a killer. It is inevitable! In other words, Bigger Thomas represents the black race as a whole, the black man to be more specific. N o matter how innocent the black man is at first or at birth, circumstances and life changing events will turn him into what he was preconceived to be: a beast.The second aspect that contributes to Bigger Thomas' creation and destruction is his family. Bigger Thomas, like most African-Americans of his time, was raised without a father, whether It be through abandonment or unfortunate accident. At an early age, Bigger Thomas Is forced to assume the Father figure of the household. HIS mother's constant disapproval of him as well as his younger sister's criticism weighs heavily on the person he became: a Black man who will never have the respect he deserves from society as well as his family. The third aspect that added to the creation and destruction of Bigger Thomas is he Dalton.One symbolic view that supports this idea is the fact that Mrs.. Dalton is blind. She is blind to the social stigma of blackness, prejudices, and injustices around her. Mr.. Dalton on the other hand, even from a good heart, does not realize his contributions to the collapse of many men like Bigger Thomas. Although he views himself as a philanthropist, racial laws that Mr.. Talon's business abides to concerning housing leave the blacks feeling exploited and used. The Dalton do not realize the effect of racism on the oppressed and the effect of racism on the oppressor.They represent the small percentage of whites that view themselves as advocates for the black race while being completely oblivious to the harm that they are actually causing. Although external stimuli sun as racial prejudices, oppression, ten lack AT respect from society and from his family have a say to the demise of Bigger Thomas, it would be unjust to not also give Bigger his share of responsibility. Bagger's his own person and should be able to see the difference between right or wrong. However, it is clear that growing up in the circumstances that Bigger Thomas did, one could say he never stood a chance in hell.