Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Impact of EU Enlargement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Impact of EU Enlargement - Essay Example Government expenditures needed to meet the cost of the EU regulations will also necessitate greater debt and higher taxes. As published by EU Observer, a daily newspaper in Brussels, the large expenses involved in accession, the new member states may have to ask private or public financial institutions for money and further the government may also have to adopt economic measures such as increasing taxes.(Marian L. Tupy, 2000:2) The fifth enlargement in 2004 was long awaited enlargement of EU which began in 1998 and culminated with the agreement of intergovernmental conference in Nice 2000, according to which Poland became signatory to the Nice Treaty in February 2001 and joined the EU in May 2004.(Poland and the issues surrounding EU Enlargement, 2004)2 Hanska (2008:3) in her paper work stated that Poland, from the geographical point of view is the sixth largest and one of the most populous countries within the EU and, because of this, considers itself as one of the more powerful member states at the same time.3 Polish society is one of the most pro European societies in the European societies in... sh people supported European Integration during 20034 referendum and polish membership in the EU because all the EU institutions were perceived by Polish people who were effective and less corrupted. The Polish supported the integration because they perceived the EU accession as strategic goal for Poland and majority of the society viewed it as inevitability. Even the polish farmers realized that EU integration is worth its promise and that it was real because of its subsidiaries. The EU integration opened labor markets which allowed getting legal works in countries like France, Netherlands and Italy. Prezmek Jaron (n.d.) analyzed that the accession has given international education opportunities for the Polish as other European member states, which was not permissible prior to the accession. And EU budget provides Poland with a chance to become the biggest beneficiary of EU financial support. The most important dimension of EU integration is possibility of traveling across Europe wi thout passport.5 Poland after EU accession possesses completely new political reality with their first ever election of Parliament and President in 2005 since 1989. (Prezmek Jaron, n.d) Poland is an important country with EU because of its size, geo-political position and its market. According to the data of Institute of Public Affairs, in the year 2006, 36 % of the respondents agreed that integration with EU brings personally more benefits than losses as compared to 27% in 2004 and 2005 respectively. While 28% (2006) agreed with as many losses as benefits compared to 32% (2005) and 29% (2004). And 16% (2006) gave consent to more losses than benefits against 23% (2005) and 23% (2005). While some of the remaining respondent's were not sure and others found it difficult. (Lena Kolarska Bobi

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Young Goodman Brown | Analysis

Young Goodman Brown | Analysis The conflicts between the everyday battles and forces of good and evil are portrayed the story, Young Goodman Brown. Nathaniel Hawthorne uses many symbolic elements, from the characters names in the story and throughout until its delusional ending. They show us that sin is a part of human nature and that no man is perfect beyond any means. The presence of evil appears as Brown begins on his journey. He had taken a dreary road, darkened by all the gloomiest trees of the forest, which barely stood aside to let the narrow path creep through, and closed immediately behind it. Forests are used to symbolize wickedness, evil and danger. The road that is to be travelled is very dark and small, and it is enveloping him as it closes swiftly behind him, displaying the abandonment of his faith. What if the devil himself should be at my very elbow! This symbolizes that he is, in fact, walking along side the devil on this dreary road into the forest. Moments later a companion appears, Young tells him, Faith kept me back awhile, which explains that he had been faithful to his beliefs for some time, and then decided to cross over to the evil world. This said; it could be that this companion is in fact the devil himself, when his staff is noticed, bore the likeness of a great black snake, so curiously wrought, that it might almost be s een to twist and wriggle itself, like a living serpent. The staff being referred to as a serpent, can be compared to the serpent in the story of Adam and Eve. This is an excellent reference to how certain things in life can be deceitful, and the knowing of what is right and wrong. There comes a point in the story where Goodman Brown states, Is that any reason why I should quit my dear Faith, and go after her? This is when he begins to question his journey on the road between good and evil. It is then suggested by his companion, Sit here and rest yourself awhile; and when you feel like moving again, there is my staff to help you along. The devil is now leaving behind the sole key and the permission for Brown to join him in the world of evil and corruption, and then he walks away. This plays out in life as it is known today. As Browns journey into the forest continues, he hears voices and decides to hide. It vexed him the more, because he could have sworn, were such a thing possible, that he recognized the voices of the minister and Deacon Gookin, jogging along quietly, as they were wont to do, when bound to some ordination or ecclesiastical council. This is a symbolization of betrayal. With the Minister and Deacon out in the forest in the middle of the night, and the previous symbols involving the devil, Goodman Brown might have a feeling of being betrayed by his faith and feel alone. While he still gazed upward, into the deep arch of the firmament, and had lifted his hands to pray, a cloud, though no wind was stirring, hurried across the zenith, and hid the brightening stars. The thought of being abandoned overcomes him and he begins to pray to the heavens but is surrounded by the forest and its evils. The cloud symbolizes the dangers of allowing your surroundings, family and friends to become a blind fold and shield ones eyes from their beliefs. Eventually young Goodman Brown reaches the circle of the wicked, their voices joined in song. This dreadful anthem was joining the sounds of the nature and wilderness around him. Fire is represented here, which could also symbolize the anger and the passion for the fight of good and evil. The devil now begins his sermon, Depending on one anothers hearts, ye had still hoped, that virtue were not all a dream. Now are ye undeceived! Evil is the nature of mankind. Evil must be your only happiness. Welcome again my children, to the communion of your race! Even from the beginning of the story, it is foreshadowed that this whole story is in fact a dream. Hawthorne states in the beginning A lone woman is troubled with such dreams, gives an indication that this is a dream. Also, the reference to evil being a nature of mankind and of it being your only happiness is extremely wicked and satanic. The ending of the story does in the end rest the mind that this was in fact a dream. A stern, a sad, a darkly meditative, a distrustful, if not a desperate man, did be become, from the night of that fearful dream. It appears that the realization of disbelief in his faith, Brown woke up and lived the rest of his life as a bitter and untrusting man. And this states that the devil got the best of him. Nathaniel Hawthorne does an excellent job utilizing symbolism in this story to depict a real life battle that many of the human race struggle with everyday. The dark forest that Brown traveled, was not just a setting in the story, but an illustration of the journey though everyday life. And Young Goodman Brown shows us that it is easier to get side tracked on the right paths and travel on the wrong side.

Friday, October 25, 2019

To Download Or Not To Download Essay -- essays research papers fc

The Internet is an extremely useful resource to obtain information on just about any topic. A relatively new feature of the World Wide Web is the technology for the sharing of music in MP3 format. A popular site to download â€Å"free† music is called Napster. This program allows people to share music files, discover new artists, and become part of the music community. Although Napster is controversial, the program should still remain accessible to Internet users and music lovers. Marc Geiger, a supporter of the program, states that â€Å"Napster is ‘totally community oriented,† (â€Å"Napster†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ). It brings artists and fans together, and can allow struggling musicians a chance to be heard; that’s what the program is all about. â€Å"The more people hear the songs, the more they want {to} buy the CD† (â€Å"Napster†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ). The struggling musicians who aren’t making millions from one CD release are the avid supporters of Napster. Richardson is promoting the good side of the software, and trying to make upset artists understand that this program is for the little guys. â€Å"Its software aims to make finding MP3 files easier one the Net† (RIAA). Another advantage of the program is that it allows finding music files easier instead of having to search the entire World Wide Web. Napster is an MP3 file-sharing program that enables users to share their music with one another. Anyone with a computer can download the program, sign the user agreement contract and then start swapping music. The program includes chat features, a top music sharing list, searching capabilities, a chart that shows the status of the file transfer, a â€Å"library,† and a help section. The chat rooms allow for conversation between the different users, and shows information on the people in the room. The search feature allows the music consumer to search by song title, artist, bit rate, ping time, and connection. The file transfer element of the program allows the customer to see how much of the file is downloaded, the estimated time for the transfer to finish, the name of the host of the music, how big the file is, and the filename, (song title, and artist usually). The â€Å"library† is a music file holder that sorts the downloaded music files alphabetically. It allows ha s a music player, which can play an assortment of already downloaded music chosen by the consumer in any order. The program is easy to use and does not contain ... ...on, Brad. â€Å"10 Big Myths about Copyright Explained.† http://www.templetons.com/brad//copymyths.html (26 Nov. 2000). Outline I. Introduction A. Background of mp3 and Napster 1. What it is and how it works 2. Support for Napster B. Program description C. Founder of Napster 1. Why he developed Napster II. Body A. Problems with Napster 1. Pirated MP3 files 2. Copyright infringement court case 3. Problems with RIAA’s defense   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  B. Bills preventing copyright infringement   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1. Penalties for downloading unsecured files C. Similarities between Sony vs. Universal Studios court case and Napster vs. RIAA court case D. Consequences for Napster if it is found guilty of Copyright infringement E. Making the record companies obsolete if Napster is to be abolished F. Problems between the â€Å"digital divide† 1. Commercialism III. Conclusion A. Napster is a resource 1. Connection between artist and fans 2. People buy the CD after they have downloaded one song from that artist. B. Quote from Shawn Fanning, (founder)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Do movie cause social evil to youths

Watching movies always considered as a relaxing thing because movie can satisfied us with all different needs. However, because of the technological development, people can download all the movie from plentiful websites easily with laptops or even a cellophane. And due to the advancement of accessing, there is no specific range of age to watch those movies. Many movies such as godfather, triple x, the wolf of the wall streets both with the theme of patriotism, crime and action always got chased by youths.I leveled here specific types of negative impact to make a better explanation. First of all is violence. Speaking of violence movie, guns and blood always present. If we think back some news of school shootings and many homicides committed by youths, there is so much violence involved at this early age. Other examples such as bullying, substance abuse happens a lot as well. The spreading of media and movie is one of the most important reasons. Teenagers just imitate the shooting beha viors from movies but knowing nothing about consequence, because movies hardly mention that.Second one is drug abuse. As young kids started to grow up with desires, it is easy to get curious about the things that they don't know. Statistics done by Cambium's(the Nation Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University) show that, 86 percent of US high school students know someone who drinks, smokes or does drugs. Around 50 percent know classmate who sells drugs. Media portrayal of drugs can lead the teenagers to know the drugs from negative sights and show the audience how it feels exaggeratedly. The last one is adultery and premature sex.It is more often that having nudity and sex scenes has become an attraction point or selling point. Younger generation become premature sex conscious and imitate the scenes of movies in real life. Without correct sex protection, more and more problems occur such as teenagers parents and so on. The impact of premature sex caused disease d society both mentally and physically. Most movies do have harmful impact on the youths. But the most important thing is to know the truth and reality in life.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Department of Social Services

The national organization of caring for the values mostly given attention by the society today through voluntary services is that of the Department of Social Services. Likely, their existence in the society makes it easier for the entire human society within the communities that they serve to be able to garner the most basic commodities that they need for life. These commodities involve food and shelter as well as medication. Having them operate within the current tumultuous situations in the society makes the earth a more livable place.It is through this particular organization that the needs of people are given fine attention by the government. The Objectives of the Organization As a major organization that handles the needs of the society, the American Department of Social Services sees to it that the major issues about human needs in the society is well attended to. The said needs are divided into several points of concentration that involves the different divisions of people nee ding support in the society. The divisions are as follows: †¢ Child Foster Care Services †¢ Child Abuse and Neglect Services†¢ Family Support Services †¢ Elderly Assistance Services †¢ Health Care Services With these objectives in mind, the administration of the organization actually intends to make it certain that each division of the population in the society receives the attention that they need to be able to exist in the communities that they are living in. it is also the aim of this particular organization to handle the needs of immigrants transferring to the country who are usually in need of assistance with regards community familiarity as well as with their basic needs. The MissionAs noted earlier, the Department of Social Service particularly wants to extend help to special groups of people in the population of a certain society that they are involved in. With this mission in front of them, the organization constantly makes it certain that everythin g they have outlined to perform for their stakeholders, mainly the community, are seriously attended to at the appointed time as they themselves have scheduled. To attend to the needs of the target audience in the society is the main idea of the establishment of the said organization.Being funded by the government and assisted by commercial organizations, the organization’s mission of providing the society with the finest service that they deserve is not that hard to complete. The Issues Living in such a tumultuous society, finding somebody to ease the stresses and the pains brought about by the world indeed helps so much especially when it comes to facing the challenges of life. This is the reason why the existence of social workers and Non-government Organizations aiming to help the whole human population to cope up with life is an important factor considered whenever voluntary work is being discussed.With regards to social work, as the name of the job suggests itself, the main focus of NGO’s involved in social work is the social issues that are found in the human community. Because of this, they have continuously tried in alleviating the human systems of living through their assistance in the issues and problems that are mostly considered as the main reasons of stress and depression in the community. With issues on psychosocial difficulties emerging in the entire4 human community, the social workers have an important role when it comes to supporting the said people caught up in those situations hard to deal with as mentioned above.It is more often than not that the nature of social worker’s job is closely related to mediating between agencies and the clients needing their services and yet does not have any means or power to do so. According to the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW) and the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW), the main definition and role of social work in the society are as follows : â€Å"The social work profession promotes social change, problem solving in humanRelationships and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well- being. Utilizing theories of human behavior and social systems, social work intervenes at the points where people interact with their environments. Principles of human rights and social justice are fundamental to social work. † (The American Psychological Association) But although this is true of the main goals of social work, thee are still some certain important issues needed to be addressed within the systems of organization making up and bonding social workers together.One of the said issues is the existence f racial discrimination. This issue actually affects the social work systems both in and out of the organizations of social workers. Internally, this is naturally because of the fact that social workers are usually made up of people from different countries, cultures and races. In this way, some conflicts are pr esent because of the fact that each individual joining the social works are widely diverse and have different views on several points of concern within the social work.Externally, this issue is usually developed when social workers tend to chose the people they opt to help. With regards to this issue, several social workers as well as society experts have conducted studies and tried to solve the problems brought about by the issue within the systems of the organization in the social working tasks. The following paragraphs shall introduce the vital informations collected by the researchers regarding the said issue. Racial Discrimination and Its Effects to the Society Megacities are plagued by even more serious problems.Besides insufficient housing, overcrowded schools, and understaffed hospitals, psychological aspects are also involved. Dr. Paul Leyhausen, a leading German ethologist, claims that â€Å"a great number of neuroses and social maladjustments are, partially or totally, d irectly or indirectly, caused by overcrowding. † (1999, 12). Megacities rob their citizens of a sense of community, turning the city into a faceless mass of numbers. In the midst of hundreds of neighbors, a city dweller can be lonely, yearning for friends and companions he can find nowhere.The sense of alienation created by this situation becomes dangerous when it causes multinational populations to break up into racial or ethnic groups. Economic inequalities or acts of discrimination—real or imagined—can lead to disaster, as Los Angeles learned in 1992 when outbreaks of racial violence resulted in more than 50 deaths and 2,000 injuries (Leyhausen, 1999, 13). Indeed, racial discrimination is already considered as a social plague, affecting the whole world.And Along with this, the fact that the whole society of man is naturally diverse, even people who aims to help the society with their problems regarding the issues of social diversity also face the same challeng e of staying united amidst the changes they have against each other. Cities especially encounter the grave effects of the issues behind racial discrimination and according to the American Psychological Association, these dilemmas bring so much depression and stress to the population comprising the cities’ territories.This is also the main reason why behind the wonderful goals of social workers around the globe, issues such as racial discrimination brings them so much hindrance in getting their goals done for the society. As mentioned earlier, several researchers already worked on this topic and thus got considerably fine results regarding their studies. Through the use of surveys and interviews, a lot of the results of the studies were taken into conclusion.The following paragraphs shall discuss several ways in which racial discrimination has been proven as a part of the regular social work and yet had been continuously used by many social workers as an opportunity to bond to gether better than to simply get along with the flow of dispute brought about by the issue. In the Journal of Women and Social Work in an article entitled â€Å"What racial discrimination does to the social work society†, it has been mentioned that racial discrimination is indeed considered an organizational sickness especially when it comes to working ethics (Dinerman, 2005, 11).Usually, this issue of diversity causes a lot of problems within the system of assistance that social workers give to their fellowmen. It has been mentioned too that racial discrimination also sets the workers apart and drives them to choose who among the needy people should they help basing upon the cultural or racial qualification of the person to be helped. On the other hand, the British Association of Social Workers say otherwise, to them â€Å"racial discrimination is an opportunity opened to the social workers in showing their unity and bond beyond the cultural differences they have from each other (1999, 14).True, if the issue is carefully dealt with, racial discrimination could bring different people joined by an organization in a stronger bond. It may be considered an irony by many. However, because of the fact that the right ways of facing the dilemma had brought many social organizations more bonded together than separated by differences, it is really not impossible to make the issue of racial discrimination â€Å"a bridge to better opportunities of bonding with people from other cultures.Seeing differences as a positive factor in the society which sets the uniqueness of each individual in the entire human community† (British Association of Social Work, 1999, 12) is indeed a key factor in making racial diversity a successful aspect of the social organizations. The Role of Social Work in Discrimination Issues Through the use of adequate studies done by social work experts as discussed in this paper, racial discrimination is referred both as an asset and weakne ss of a social organization designed to help the people in the communities.It is more often than not though that the lack of effective ways in facing the challenges of racial discrimination to an organization, many social groups fail in controlling the dilemma of the issue. As Anne Rosegrant Alvarez mentioned in her Article â€Å"A look at cultural diversity† that proper handling of disputes regarding racial discrimination within social organizations bring considerably fine results for both the association and the individual performance of each member towards the fulfillment of their goals as a group (2006, 13).The following are the six ways in which social workers are able to control if not completely eliminate the dreadful effects of racial discrimination to organizations aiming to serve the community. As these six practices are implied within the rules and regulations of the organization in dealing within the organization and with the people in the community, the goals of the organization is observed to have easier ways in achieving their goals as a group.These practices are as follows: †¢ Having oriented as social equalizers, the social workers become more capable of handling disputes and controlling both their fellow social workers and themselves in dealing with social discrimination. †¢ Seeing everyone as a part of an important purpose in the society helps every social worker to work well with their colleagues as well as serve all people of all races amidst all the differences they have against others.†¢ Having the aim to give pure and undoubted service to everyone also allows the social worker to serve the people with purpose, disregarding the accent or the color of the skin of any person they ought to serve in the community. †¢ Being considerate with what the person needs and not where the person cam from is also an important factor to be considered by the social workers. As repeatedly mentioned, the main focus of social grou ps is to be of service to others, and failing to do such an aim is a betrayal to the profession.†¢ Having fair views of everyone may not be that easy, especially if the person has significant cultural background that has a negative impact on the other. However, if both parties would be able to consider the fact that social work is bounded by love for one’s fellowmen, the hatred brought about by discrimination could as well be covered by concern for others welfare. †¢ Making the best out of one’s time and neglecting unnecessary details about senseless things could as well help a social worker see the importance of doing â€Å"first things first.These means that prioritizing social service above all could drown the ideas of racial discrimination completely. (Source: Gutierez, 2006, Pp 4, 5). Indeed, considering the six major practices of ethical social service given by an excellent social worker to his or her fellow workers and to the people, gives a promising successful result of hard work for a certain social group. As clearly seen, the researches have been able to put concrete and relevant details down into writing for the benefit of the social workers in enhancing their servicing skills.These informations were taken into consideration since they are all sourced out from people who have actually put the principles of social work into practice in their own experiences of rendering services to other people. Having been able to see the importance of proper handling of racial disputes and racial discrimination in both internal and external setting of the relationship of the social workers to the community, it is also important to know how effective the practices mentioned above are when it comes to actual practice of social service operations.How the Implementation of Rightful Practices on Racial Discrimination Affects Social Work As mentioned earlier, the six practices which are designed to at least control racial discrimination within a nd outside the social groups, have been already applied by many social workers and were proven effective as they have observed the effects of the practices both on them, their organization and the community. In the book â€Å"International Perspectives on Social Work in Health Care: Past, Present and Future†, Auslander mentioned that: â€Å"the social practices around the world have been exceptionally developingduring the past few years. The fact that many social workers are already able to successfully work within a highly culturally diverse group, the level of excellence of social services provided internationally are known to have been developing as well† (1997, 16). Yes, because of the fact that many social workers already recognize the importance of racial equality in aiming for the best results of social services, the relationship between the community and the Non Government Organizations have been strongly enhanced during the past years.In this regard, it is sim ply rightful to say that as researchers of social work and racial discrimination have concluded, â€Å"the right handling of disputes give best results† (Feit, 2002, 3). Aside from this, it could also be said that in many cases, self-control and self-discipline helps a lot in the implication of equality within the activities of social work. The ability of a certain social crew to divert his thoughts of racial discrimination to a healthy thought of cultural respect of diversity naturally helps that worker to become fairer when it comes to his treatment towards his colleagues and the people of whom he serves.As obviously seen, the studies performed by the researchers and social work experts helps us understand the deeper issues which social workers have to face in their profession. It has been clearly shown though their works that racial discrimination is an expected source of dispute between colleagues in the social work systems. However, although this is the case, many social organizations still manage to deal with the problem and thus get considerably fine results for their hard work.It could also be added that in many ways, turning dispute into becoming a bridge towards a closer bond between the differences and uniqueness each person possesses compared to others helps a lot in making a peaceful and more concerned society to exist. (Hoefer, 2006, 18) Surely, the consequences of having been able to meet and survive the challenges of combating racial differences has a very great effect on how social groups deal with their communities.This is the reason why it is most advised by the researchers that further studies on the matter should be generated in an aim of further increasing the capability and the credibility of social groups in providing social help. Conclusion and Recommendations Although a lot of studies regarding the matter of social work and racial discrimination have already been commenced and finished, it would still be helpful to continuously search for possible ways in which social groups could combat the negative effects of racial discrimination to the goals of the organizations.In this way, it would also be advisable to look deeper on the reason why racial discrimination is present in the society. In this way, the roots of the issue could be traced and solved at the same time, making it possible for social workers to do their duties to the community without being hindered by discriminating ideas and cultural differences. True, as great as social work is when it comes to serving the community, so are the issues that are arising within the groups or organizations of such kind. Yes, issues on racial discrimination could be considered as a hindrance to the social worker’s fulfillment of their goals.Yet, an effective and strategic way of facing the challenges placed by the dilemma could help in even developing the servicing skills of the social workers further as they are forced to discipline their thoughts as well as their acts when it comes to facing the issue of struggling through with social differences. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: Ruth Crocker. (1992). Social Work and Social Order: The Settlement Movement in Two ndustrial Cities, 1889-1930. University of Illinois Press. Lena Robinson. (1995). Psychology for Social Workers. Routledge; 1 edition. Anna Metteri.(2005). Social Work Visions From Around The Globe: Citizens, Methods, And Approaches (The Social Work in Health Care Series). Haworth Social Work. James G. Daley. (2006). Advances in Social Work: Special Issue on The Futures of Social Work. Trafford Publishing. Nancy Elizabeth Sullivan. (2002). Social Work With Groups: Social Justice Through Personal, Community, and Societal Change. Haworth Press. Richard Hugman. (1995). Ethical Issues in Social Work (Professional Ethics). Routledge; 1 edition. John S. Wodarski. (1996).Cultural Diversity and Social Work Practice. C. C. Thomas; 2nd edition. Journal Articles: Miriam Dinerman. (2005). â€Å"Wha t racial discrimination does to the social work society†. Journal of Women and Social Work. Yeshiva University. British Association of Social Workers. (September 1999). â€Å"Working beyond racial diversity†. British Journal of Social Work. Anne Rosegrant Alvarez. (Volume 14 Number 1 spring 2006). â€Å"A look at cultural diversity†. Journal of Community Practice. Lorraine Gutierez. (Volume 14 Number 2 spring 2006). â€Å"Making things work†. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity. University of Texas Arlington.Marvin D. Feit. (Volume 15 Number 3 August 2002). â€Å"How the society behaves†. Journal of Human Behavior and Social Environment. University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Richard Hoefer. (Volume 5 Number 1 Spring 2006) â€Å"Effective Despite Differences† . Social Policy Journal. University of Texas, Arlington. Paul Leyhausen. (1999). â€Å"The big cities, the big differences†. Journal on Ethnology. University of Tennessee, Knoxv ille. American Psychological Association. (1990). â€Å"The cost of social work†. Psychology Journal. American Psychological Association.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Essay on Indian Religion Essay Example

Essay on Indian Religion Essay Example Essay on Indian Religion Essay Essay on Indian Religion Essay India as a country has been bestowed with several nomenclatures. Right from unity in diversity to birthplace of Hinduism and Sanskrit, the land has always been admired and revered for its rich cultural legacy and variety that it offers. India is a story, a legend, folklore and an anecdote in itself. It needs no introduction, no specific mention. It has continued to thrive for centuries and there are bright chances of it being the next super power. The country has always nourished numerous cultures, traditions and religions. All the major religions thrive in India and none of them have ever felt insecure or unprotected. That’s the beauty of the land. Go to any part of rich India and you will find numerous temple and shrines and all of them contain their own unique stories. We have always believed in beautiful and fascinating description of Indian Gods and Goddesses. Many stories have been told and retold in different fashions about how particular God originated in a particular place. All the descriptions of deities are believable and they convey just one message of Good winning over the evil. Gods in Indian religion have always fought monsters and even taken human forms to conquer evils in convincing manner. Right from north India to southern and western states, everywhere one can find plenty of amazing tales about our religion and sustenance over the centuries. The essence remains the same, the versions differ. Indian mythology has always been popular among masses. Its effect can be seen from different religious functions and tales told to the kids by their grandma. The virtues have always been exemplified by the conduct of the Gods. Many present day symbols have been born from our mythology and religious beliefs. For example, Om or Swastika or Trishul etc have always been revered. Religious beliefs are in tune with our traditional way of living and we as staunch believers still believe in following the rules and customs. When you hear of stories about our mythological characters like Ram, Sita, Hanuman, Ravana, Ganesha, Krishna and Bhima etc you get to know about what the essence of India is made of. These characters are now being used in animation movies that will be further helpful in making new generation aware of India’s famous religions and mythology. Religion and mythology is no less than precious treasure that must be respected and preserved. India is a story in itself. There have been civilizations and archaeological facts that are constantly being researched about the birth place of Hindu Gods and Goddesses. Though many times there are fake inventions, there seems a lot of history in the shrines and temples in India. Each depiction of God and villains seems appropriate with the truth winning over the evil. Each time and place has the new emergence of a Hindu God who takes care of the three worlds and slays the evil. A swastika or an Om is a revered sign and mentioned as prosperity. There are many symbols like the Trishul or the Trident which is not displayed everywhere as it is considered aggressive. It is customary to smear ash or sandalwood powder in the forehead as it cools the mind. These are beliefs turned to tradition and most of us follow the rules and codes. The latest generation is quite inquisitive about facts yet totally appreciates the quests of Lord Rama, the slaying of the ten headed Ravana, the piousness of Sita and the loyalty of Hanuman. Animation flicks are being created showing characters like Gathotkach the son of Bhima, Hanuman and Ganesha. Though these are kid specials, this would be the best way to teach them about Gods and religion. Dashavatar is a wonderful combination of story and the magnanimous nature of Lord Vishnu. Each avatar or creation has a set nature and character. It is mind blowing to see the story narration and is well received by the all of us. Our art and culture have direct relation with the mythology. The Shravan month is a holy time where people get religiously and maintain fasting. This is also the time for the beginning of all festivals. Magic or splendor is what we see at the Ganesh Chaturthi festival in India. The Durga Puja is another feat. South traditions relate to Lord Muruga( Karthik) or Lord Ayyappa. The shrine of Vaishnodevi in Jammu involves climbing a steep mountain of 14 kilometers bent and the mission seems accomplished once we see the holy pind. People hold allegiance and complete belief in miracles when life challenges them. Mythology is the treasure of Indian religion and must be given to our progeny.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Understanding and Using Latin Adverbs

Understanding and Using Latin Adverbs Adverbs as Particles Adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections are called particles. Adverbs in Latin, as in English, modify other words in the sentence, especially verbs. Adverbs also modify adjectives and other adverbs. In English, the ending -ly, added to an adjective, makes it easy to identify many adverbs: He walked slowly- where slowly modifies the word walked, and where slow is the adjective. In Latin, adverbs are mainly formed from adjectives and participles. Latin adverbs provide information in a sentence about manner, degree, cause, place, or time. Regular Formations of Adverbs From Adjectives In Latin, some adverbs are formed by adding an ending to an adjective. For first and second declension adjectives, a long -e replaces the ending. Instead of the adjective carus, -a, -um (dear), the adverb is care.To adjectives from the third declension, -ter is added. From the adjective fortis brave, the adverb form is fortiter.The neuter accusative of some adjectives is also the adverb. Multum many becomes multum much as an adverb.The formation of other adverbs is more complicated. Some Adverbs of Time quando? when?cum whentum thenmox presently, sooniam alreadydum whileiam pridem long agoprimum firstdeinde next afterhodie todayheri yesterdaynunc nowpostremo finallypostquam as soon asnumquam neversaepe oftencotidie every daynondum not yetcrebro frequentlypridie the day beforesemper alwaysumqam everdenique at last Adverbs of Place hic herehuc hitherhinc from hereibi thereeo thither, to thereillic therequo whitherunde whenceubi whereundique from everywhereibidem in the same placeeodem to the same placequovis anywhereusque all the way tointro inwardlynusquam nowhereporro further oncitro to this side Adverbs of Manner, Degree, or Cause quam how, astam soquamvis however muchmagis morepaene almostvalde greatlycur whyquare whyergo thereforepropterea because, on this accountita sosic sout as, howvix hardly Interrogative Particles whether: an, -ne, utrum, utrumne, numwhether not nonne, annonwhether at all numquid, ecquid Negative Particles not non, haud, minime, ne, neclest nenor neque, necnot only ... but also non modo ... verum/sed etiamnot only not ... but not even non modo ... sed ne ... quidemnot even ne ... quidemif not si minusso as not quo minus, quominuswhy not? quin Comparison of Adverbs To form the comparative of an adverb, take the neuter accusative of the adjectival form. clarus, clara, clarum, clear (adjective, m, f, and n)clarior, clarius, clearer (adjective in the comparative, m/f and n)clare, clearly (adverb)clarius, more clearly (adverb in the comparative) There are also irregular comparative forms. The superlative is formed from the superlative of the adjective, ending in -e. clarissimus, -a, -um, most clear (superlative adjective, m, f, and n)clarissime, most clearly (superlative adverb) Source Allen and Greenoughs New Latin Grammar

Sunday, October 20, 2019

How to Write an Expository Essay

How to Write an Expository Essay To write an expository essay means to convey information in such a way that your reader can understand it. It’s an essay comprised of facts and nothing but the facts. Biographies and non-fiction can fall into expository writing. Journalism is another example of expository writing. In this kind of writing, you will most often find facts, statistics and examples to support the information that the author is writing about. Emotions and personal opinion is strictly left out. An expository essay is typically written in third person, meaning that you do not use â€Å"I† or â€Å"You†. Before beginning your writing, extensive research and reading must be performed of your essay topic. You must have a clear understanding of the subject before you can attempt to explain it to your audience. Once you have reached a point where you feel that you completely understand the topic, then you may begin your writing. Decide which method you plan on using to back up your essay. There are various ways. You can use process analysis, cause and effect, compare and contrast or you could decide to use definition, classification or example. This will require some thought on your part before you begin your writing as you will want to find the most effective way of showing the reader about your topic. Be organized, know how you will present the essay by choosing the most effective way to divide and present the information. Now that you’ve done your research, it’s time to come up with a thesis statement. This should be a clear concise statement that leaves no question as to what the essay is about. After you decide on your thesis, now it’s time to write your paper. Be sure that every paragraph is tightly written with a distinct topic. Begin with a paragraph that performs as an introduction. Within this first section, you should be able to state the thesis along with the various supporting topics in such a way to gain the reader’s interest. Then within the following paragraphs, there should be a topic sentence to begin each one. Then every sentence within those paragraphs needs to reinforce that particular topic. Keep everything you say factual. An expository essay is basically reinforcing and supporting a topic with known analysis and statistics. It helps to make references to another’s work or paper that relates to the topic you are writing about to assist the reader in their understanding. Finally, the thesis statement needs to be tied to the topics stated in each paragraph. This is going to sum up the entire paper for the reader therefore no new material should ever be introduced in the concluding paragraph. Revise your paper upon completion. The first draft will be basically a sum of your thoughts, analysis and reporting. A revision will enable you to determine if you are using the most effective words to convey the message to the reader. Since expository writing requires that every paragraph be tight and well-defined, performing revisions on this paper is a must to ensure that your thoughts have not wandered during the course of writing. Expository writing is a practice used in all career fields. You’ll most likely find yourself at some point having to put together a paper showing why something is, what makes it that way? You’ll find yourself in a position where you’ll need to show a complete report on a subject whether it be to a superior at work or to clients. Writing an expository essay means writing with confidence about something and being accurate with your facts. Knowing how to put together a professional looking report for someone will go a long way in gaining their trust in your abilities.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Analysis and Recomendation of Marketing strategy of Vodafone Essay

Analysis and Recomendation of Marketing strategy of Vodafone - Essay Example Strategies of an organization should well be able to detail themselves as per the needs of the environment while planning for the future. A framework for any program can well be preferred if it is deeply affinitive to the generalization of a venture or enterprise keeping in mind the quality of methodizing. The one concept firmly oriented towards the creation of values for its customers will conclude with excellence in the target market. Vodafone uses its familiar red logo and retains themes of togetherness, fashion joy and enjoyment throughout its marketing communications. The same uniformity is maintained and followed by Fanta, Microsoft, Nike, Sony and host of other companies. What should be the rational behind this? Is it for fun? Integrated marketing communications see the elements of the communications mix integrated into a coherent whole. As the fight of market shares and quest for product success continue, marketers are employing all the necessary tactics, and methods to give their product a break through, or remain competitive (Brennan, Baines, and Garneau, 2003, Rowley J 2004). One way of doing this is through differentiation, making your product outstanding, by having your values and image (Zineldin M., and Philipson S., 2007). This is known as the marketing communications mix, and forms the basis of marketing (Pelsmacher& Kitchen., 2005) This paper examined the importance of marketing to Vodafone, it current and future market challenges using certain analytical tools and models. Part one of the paper lay emphasis on these models while part three looks at the resources and capabilities that distinguished Vodafone from its competitors. The PESTEL framework can only be used to look at the future impact of environmental factors and that this impact might be

Friday, October 18, 2019

Callable Bonds Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Callable Bonds - Term Paper Example There are different reasons as to why companies issue callable bonds, as noted by Frykman and Tolleryd, one of the reasons as to why companies issue callable bonds is because of their hedge interest rate (173). The point is that, the moment interest rates reduce, the issuing companies can then repay the bonds at lower interest rates. This paper aims at examining callable bonds. Overview As explained by Le callable bonds allows those borrowing the option of re-investing if the interest rates reduces (4). This implies that companies are able to hedge against likely reduction of interest rates in future. It is because of this aspect tha makes callable bonds to be prefered by many investors particularly before 1990s. In deed, before 1970, nearly all companies issued bonds that had were callable. But, as from 1970 to 1990, callable bonds being issued reduced to about 80%. This was attributed to developents that had taken place within the interest rate derivaive markets over that period. P resently, the number of callable bonds on the market has greatly reduced accounting for less than 30%. According to Le the reason for this reduction is the fact that, it has become easier for companies to hedge against the interest rate risks (4). Explaining callable bonds When a company issues a bond, it has to make a critical decision regarding the type of bond it will issue, if it will be a callable bond or a regular one. In defining a callable bond Brigham and Houston states that callable bond, also known as redeemable bond is a kind of bond that permits the issuing firm to retain the benefit of trading in the bond at a certain time before the maturity date (220). This implies that the issuing firm retains the right of buying back the callable bond, though it is not obligated to do that. Basically, the bonds are not in actual sense bought back by the issuing firm; rather the firm cancels them immediately. When recalling the callable bonds, the issuing firm has to pay more than t he par price. In some cases, for example in high-yield debt industry, the call premium could be considerable high. Therefore, the issuing firm has a choice, of either paying a higher premium or waiting until the bonds mature. Brigham and Houston notes that supposing the interest rates prevailing in the market go down at the time of calling back the bonds, then the issuing company will be in a position to refinance its debt cheaply (220). Accordingly, as the interest rates reduce, the value of the bonds increases, thus, it is beneficial to re-buy the bonds at their par value. When callable bonds are used, the investors are given the advantage of a higher token or value, as opposed to what they have gained with regular bonds. However, when the interest rates reduce, the issuing firms will likely recall the bonds and just invest them at interest rate is low. The moment a company has recalled the bond, the company can as well reissue the similar bonds at a much lower interest rate. This process of reissuing bonds to save money on the interest payment is referred as refunding. Brigham and Houston notes that before the bonds are recalled, the bond holders are informed by a letter, one of the agreements when investing in a callable bond (221), is that the investors agree that the bonds can be bought back and the investors should be ready to sell the bonds. However, companies recalling the bonds

Anthropology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 10

Anthropology - Essay Example Her suggestion of economic localization is ideal because it can reduce people to depend on other countries and make them more engaging and produce products which are of cultural value and importance. It can also prosper the local economy and make people more productive .According to ( Norberg) â€Å"Producers and consumers were closely linked in a community-based economy†. Also urban gardens are vital to the ecological environment as it allows enrichment of nature. Local food movement is essential as it encourages people to stand for themselves and it can increase bio – diversity .World need to grow locally and need to create unique identity of their culture and community. The two group of people mentioned by author as Tibetan farmers and Amazon tribal can be benefited from these strategies. Tibetan farmers can be encouraged to engage in more of live stock farming as it could enhance their prosperity and also avail them with meat and milk which is a main part of their diet. Amazon tribes can be prompted to indulge in agriculture of cereals and vegetables which suit their geographical nature and it can give them abundant food source and income too. Hodge, Helena N. "Globalisation versus Community." http://www.localfutures.org. ISEC, 2014. Web. 28 Feb. 2014.

The dynamics shaping an organisations Financial reporting and Essay

The dynamics shaping an organisations Financial reporting and accounting procedures - Essay Example Previous research asserts that IAS, in contrast to domestic accounting standards, restricts and confines managerial discretion as far as the choice of accounting methods is concerned and necessitates a higher level of disclosure (Ashbaugh & Pincus 2001). In harmony with the idea that higher quality accounting standards pave the way for enhanced firm transparency, it was further affirmed that the adoption of IAS leads to lower analyst forecast error. In like manner, the act of having third parties to audit a firm's financial reports can improve the quality of the financial information reported by management (Dopuch & Simunic 1982; Watts & Zimmerman 1986). The significance and merit of an audit derives from users' expectations that auditors will spot, distinguish, correct and reveal relevant lapses or misstatements in the financial reports (DeAngelo 1981; Watts and Zimmerman 1986). To the extent that external auditors probe information in the financial statements to autonomous and impa rtial analysis, such external audit increases and enhances the consistency and integrity of financial statements. Company Overview Under the old Corporation Law of the Philippines, Act 1459, the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT) was incorporated on November 28, 1928, subsequent to the agreement of partnership of four telephone companies under common ownership by American entities. In 1967, effective control of PLDT was sold by General Telephone and Electronics Corporation (a major shareholder since PLDT's incorporation) to a group of Filipino businessmen. On March 24, 2000, NTT Communications Corporation, through NTTC-UK, became PLDT's strategic partner with roughly 15% economic and voting interest in the issued common capital stock of PLDT. Concurrent with NTT Communications Corporation's investment in PLDT, it acquired 100% of Smart Communications, Inc. PLDT's charter, like those of all other Philippine corporations, was initially limited to a period of 50 years but has since been extended twice for 25 years each, the last extension being for an additional 25-year period to 2028. Under its amen ded charter (Republic Act No. 7082), which became effective on August 24, 1991, PLDT is authorized to provide virtually every type of telecommunications service, both within the Philippines and between the Philippines and other countries. The Philippines' biggest and an extremely expanded telecommunications company, its business is categorized under three principal domains: Wireless, Fixed Line, and Information and Communications Technology. Philippine Accounting Practices - Brief Historical Background The Accountancy Act 1967, which substituted the Accountancy Act 1923, directed the standardisation of accounting education, set and specified the examination process for CPA registration, and synchronised the practice of accountancy. The Act permitted

Thursday, October 17, 2019

UK Businesses Going Abroad Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

UK Businesses Going Abroad - Essay Example This also has various tax implications. In UK, the double taxation hit has come about due to the fact that the foreign income dividends have been abolished. By going abroad, companies like SmithKline Beecham, BAT industries, Glaxo Wellcome, RTZ as well as Reckitt and Colman, have managed to accommodate the principles of geographical diversification as a bid towards cushioning the blow of double taxation that has been proposed by the Chancellor of Exchequers. (Ahmad, 1997) There are numerous ethical issues that come up in this regard. To begin with, there has been a sharp increase in the number of companies that have chosen to pay their dividends as "Fids". This cost the UK economy and UK businesses over 400 million due to the fact that most of these UK businesses were moving abroad. Other issues include an analysis of whether or not it is ethical to make use of the various facilities in terms of fiscal, policy and financial mechanisms that are made available to developing countries. (Ahmad, 1997) Developing countries are in need of aids that will further the cause of economic progress. Therefore, the tax implications for these countries are favourable. Yet, the economics of these countries can accommodate only a certain percentage of businesses as far as the enjoinment of these benefits is concerned. In this regard, when a UK business moves to one of these countries, it is technically eating into this share that could otherwise have been enjoyed by the national businesses. This is an ethical issue that has been explained by cynics and economic scholars as making use of the next best opportunity. (Ahmad, 1997) International Marketing The arena of international marketing has become a field on its own that has revolutionised the arena of geographic diversification. UK businesses have taken the step towards international diversification due to make better use of opportunities that lie in the avenues of international marketing on today's world. This involves reaching out to developing countries like India, the Far East countries and other developed nations like US as well. While the developing countries have increasing levels of disposable income due to a growth in economies, the UK businesses are aiming at these countries. The UK businesses take to more developed countries like USA and Australia due to consistency as far as standards in management and marketing are concerned. Also, culturally the UK businesses are closer to the culture followed in USA and Australia more than other countries. In this regard, it is imperative to loosely define international marketing before moving on. International marketing is that sphere of activities that is aimed at introducing a product in a country or group of countries with the aim of creating sales and some amount of awareness regarding the brand. Customer satisfaction in today's world has come to occupy a place of vital importance. The phrase, "customer is king", is not just a phrase anymore. It is symbolic of the changing times where consumer courts are waiting to help citizens assert their rights. In this context, a traditional industry like banking has followed the trend and pulled up its socks. The characteristic laid back attitude of the banking industry has been long replaced by

An Active and a Passive Student Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

An Active and a Passive Student - Essay Example The present research has identified that there are a lot of people who think that active students are better learners as compared to the passive students. Active students pay more attention in the class. They are not only physically present in the class but are also mentally present there. Active students take interest in the lecture and ask the teachers questions if they have any doubts. Active students tend to apply the concepts learned in the class on their personal experiences and share any useful insights with the rest of the class to promote the culture of learning and sharing. Active students tend to grab the concepts rather than cramming things up and are always up to date with the latest lecture because they have paid attention throughout the previous lectures. There are certain people who think that passive students learn no less than active students. Although they do not pay much attention in the class, yet they make sure that they do cover up the contents of the lecture w hen they get back home. Besides, in the present age, when the sources of learning are omnipresent, it is not a big deal for a passive student to acquire the knowledge if he/she did not listen to the teacher carefully in the class. Today, most students have full-time access to the Internet and can access any kind of knowledge they want to. If the passive students deliver their assignments on time, there may be no difference between the academic and professional achievement of an active and a passive student at all.The researcher states that active students are better learners as compared to the passive students. A student who does not pay attention in the class shows lack of interest in studies. Such passive students are unlikely to go that extra mile to cover up the contents of the lecture on their own when they get back home. In fact, most of the passive learners approach their friends when little time is left in the exams. Their friends cannot teach them as nicely and sincerely as their teachers can. Accordingly, the quality of learning declines. In addition to that, since passive students tend to learn things when just a little time is left in the exams, the knowledge stays with them for only a short while and they tend to forget everything in the long run.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

UK Businesses Going Abroad Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

UK Businesses Going Abroad - Essay Example This also has various tax implications. In UK, the double taxation hit has come about due to the fact that the foreign income dividends have been abolished. By going abroad, companies like SmithKline Beecham, BAT industries, Glaxo Wellcome, RTZ as well as Reckitt and Colman, have managed to accommodate the principles of geographical diversification as a bid towards cushioning the blow of double taxation that has been proposed by the Chancellor of Exchequers. (Ahmad, 1997) There are numerous ethical issues that come up in this regard. To begin with, there has been a sharp increase in the number of companies that have chosen to pay their dividends as "Fids". This cost the UK economy and UK businesses over 400 million due to the fact that most of these UK businesses were moving abroad. Other issues include an analysis of whether or not it is ethical to make use of the various facilities in terms of fiscal, policy and financial mechanisms that are made available to developing countries. (Ahmad, 1997) Developing countries are in need of aids that will further the cause of economic progress. Therefore, the tax implications for these countries are favourable. Yet, the economics of these countries can accommodate only a certain percentage of businesses as far as the enjoinment of these benefits is concerned. In this regard, when a UK business moves to one of these countries, it is technically eating into this share that could otherwise have been enjoyed by the national businesses. This is an ethical issue that has been explained by cynics and economic scholars as making use of the next best opportunity. (Ahmad, 1997) International Marketing The arena of international marketing has become a field on its own that has revolutionised the arena of geographic diversification. UK businesses have taken the step towards international diversification due to make better use of opportunities that lie in the avenues of international marketing on today's world. This involves reaching out to developing countries like India, the Far East countries and other developed nations like US as well. While the developing countries have increasing levels of disposable income due to a growth in economies, the UK businesses are aiming at these countries. The UK businesses take to more developed countries like USA and Australia due to consistency as far as standards in management and marketing are concerned. Also, culturally the UK businesses are closer to the culture followed in USA and Australia more than other countries. In this regard, it is imperative to loosely define international marketing before moving on. International marketing is that sphere of activities that is aimed at introducing a product in a country or group of countries with the aim of creating sales and some amount of awareness regarding the brand. Customer satisfaction in today's world has come to occupy a place of vital importance. The phrase, "customer is king", is not just a phrase anymore. It is symbolic of the changing times where consumer courts are waiting to help citizens assert their rights. In this context, a traditional industry like banking has followed the trend and pulled up its socks. The characteristic laid back attitude of the banking industry has been long replaced by

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

In what ways are the state and the law patriarchical institutions Essay

In what ways are the state and the law patriarchical institutions - Essay Example regarded an embodiment of strength and knowledge, they were inclined to be in charge of the social structure to which, in olden times, left women practically incompetent over men. Holy scriptures that date back two thousand years ago illustrate how women were thought to be of no essence. 1 Timothy 2:16 â€Å"I permit no woman to teach or have authority over men. She is to keep silent.† The supremacy of a Patriarchic society extends far beyond the realms of: sexuality, family units, employment and employment compensations, male-on-female hostilities, edifying associations, and the state. (eSSORTMENT, 2002) When society began to depict the roles of men as heads of nations and kingdoms, pioneers of expeditions and discoveries, brave heroes of war, engineers of technology and infrastructure, great thinkers and philosophers, etc., it unconsciously instilled prejudicial thoughts -- that there exists an inferior gender, the female gender. (Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, 2008) A State is a defined group of people, living within defined territorial boundaries and more or less subject to an autonomous legal system exercising jurisdiction through properly constituted courts; (Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, 2008) We have mentioned how men were able to superintend the social structure several thousand years ago given the perception of his intelligence to lead, ability to provide for the family, and biological physique that exuded strength and courage. Historically, men were able to illustrate the relationships of superiority and inferiority in society such as master-slave, strong-weak, leader-follower, parent-child, masculine-feminine, patriarch-matriarch, etc. As the dominant figures or spheres in society, men were able to select principal or exceptional people to constitute authority or governance and thus, forming the state. With the existence of the state, laws of society were established which were inclined to be patriarchal in nature. The parameters of

Monday, October 14, 2019

Wear Rate of an Advanced Polymer Coating Experiment

Wear Rate of an Advanced Polymer Coating Experiment CHAPTER 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION The general purpose of coating is to protect the substrate and to be decorative, enhancing the appearance of substrate in terms of gloss, colour, adhesion and wetability. Consequently, in addition, surface properties such as resistance to wear, indentation, and scratching are critical to retain the basic functions [1, 2]. Polymers are common materials which are widely used in industry. Polymer coating acts as a protective covering in corrosive environments. The properties of polymers depend largely on the structures of individual polymer molecules, molecule shape and size as well as how molecules are arranged to form a polymer structure. Polymer molecules are characterised by their very large size a feature that distinguished them from other most organic chemical compositions. The wear rate for an advanced polymer materials varies depending on the applied normal load and the sliding speed which is affected by size, shape, the matrix composition and the test conditions [3]. As the load decreases the contact becomes elastic with consequent changes in mechanism of friction. Epoxy resin are characterized by the presence of three- member cyclic ether group commonly referred to as an epoxy group, epoxies cross-link when a catalyzing agent (hardener) is added, forming a three-dimensional molecular network. Because of their outstanding bonding strength, epoxy resins are used to make coatings, adhesives, composite laminates and have important applications in the aerospace industry. Epoxy powder coating is still widely used today, especially as a functional and tough coating where flexibility, adhesion, toughness and corrosion resistance are needed. Epoxy coatings are based on epoxy resin; they are manufactured in a way which enables the possibility of coating to a certain thickness without defect in the coating after curing [14, 16]. Epoxy power coatings get a good adhesion to aluminium or steel surfaces, and provide a good corrosion protection layer (for indoor use). Most outstanding with powder finish is the excellent resistance against other chemicals. Epo xy powder coatings are suitable especially in aggressive environments. However, they are not suitable for external use where they become discoloured as the pigments are broken down by ultra violet rays when exposed to sunlight. They consequently become chalky and actually decreased in thickness as they are washed away [15]. 1.1 AIM The main aim of this project is to determine the effect of sliding speeds on the wear rate of an advanced Polymer coating. 1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The objective of this project is to investigate the wear rate of an advanced powder coating using a reciprocating linear ball-on-flat sliding machine. Due to the nature of the resources required to run the experiments, this investigation included the careful attention taken for wear testing especially in areas of the ball-on-flat sliding machine, data acquisition and wear rate calculation. The technical approach for the investigation will involved preparing different test specimens cured at temperatures of 140oC, 160oC, 180oC, and 200oC respectively. These test specimens would then be tested for one hour at sliding speeds of 0.02 m/s, 0.03 m/s and 0.04 m/s on a fixed normal load of 0.76 kg. Data from the wear testing would be acquired at once as electrical signals through with the help of electronic data acquisition devices. Also this would involve investigating and analysing the microstructure of the all the tested coated sample to see the level of damage done to it at the above temperatures and sliding speeds. CHAPTER 2 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 POLYMERS Modern scientific tools revolutionized the processing of polymers thus available synthetic polymers like useful plastics, rubbers and fibre materials says (Satish V. Kailas) [38]. As with other engineering materials (metals and ceramics), the properties of polymers are related their constituent structural elements and their arrangement. The suffix in polymer ‘mer is originated from Greek word meros which means part. The word polymer is thus coined to mean material consisting of many parts/mers. Most of the polymers are basically organic compounds, however they can be inorganic (e.g. silicones based on Si-O network). This chapter introduces classification of polymers, processing and synthesis of polymers, followed by mechanism of deformation and mechanical behaviour of polymers [10, 11, 38]. Polymers are classified in several ways by how the molecules are synthesized, by their molecular structure, or by their chemical family. For example, linear polymers consist of long molecular chains, while the branched polymers consist of primary long chains and secondary chains that stem from their main chains. However, linear does not mean straight lines. The better way to classify polymers is according to their mechanical and thermal behaviour. Individually, polymers are classified into two main classes plastics and elastomers [10, 11]. 2.1.1 PLASTICS Plastics are mouldable organic resins. These are either natural or synthetic, and are processed by forming or moulding into shapes. Plastics are important engineering materials for many reasons. They have a wide range of properties, some of which are unattainable from any other materials, and in most cases they are relatively low in cost. Following is the brief list of properties of plastics: light weight, wide range of colours, low thermal and electrical conductivity, less brittle, good toughness, good resistance to acids, bases and moisture, high dielectric strength (use in electrical insulation), etc. Plastics are again classified in two groups depending on their mechanical and thermal behaviour as thermoplasts (thermoplastic polymers) and thermosets (thermosetting polymers) [10, 11]. 2.1.2 TYPES OF PLASTICS 2.1.2.1 THERMOPLASTS These plastics soften when heated and harden when cooled processes that are totally reversible and may be repeated. These materials are normally fabricated by the simultaneous application of heat and pressure. They are linear polymers without any cross-linking in structure where long molecular chains are bonded to each other by secondary bonds and/or inter-wined. They have the property of increasing plasticity with increasing temperature which breaks the secondary bonds between individual chains. Common thermoplasts are: acrylics, Vinyl resins (PVCs), polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyimide, ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene and styrene) etc [10, 11]. Acrylics (poly-methyl-methacrylate) They are characterised by outstanding light transmission and resistance to weathering; only fair mechanical properties. Their applications are mostly in lenses, transparent aircraft enclosures (aeroplane windows), drafting equipment, and outdoor signs [17]. Polystyrene They have low specific gravity (1.07), availability in colours form clear to opaque, resistance to water and most chemicals, dimensional stability, insulating ability. Polystyrene is an excellent rubber substitute for electrical insulation. Styrene resin is moulded into battery boxes, dishes, radio parts, lenses, flotation gears etc [17]. Polyethylene These materials are flexible at room and low temperatures, waterproof, unaffected by most chemicals, capable of being heat-sealed, and can be produced in a variety of colours. Polyethylene, which floats on water, has a density range from 0.91 to 0.96% and is one of the inexpensive plastics, and its moisture-resistant characteristics ensure its use for packing and squeeze bottles [12, 17]. Polyethylene Polymer Table 2.1 Properties of polyethylene Polypropylene Polypropylene has excellent electrical properties, high impact and tensile strength and is resistant to heat and chemicals. Monofilaments of polypropylene are used in making rope, nets, and textiles. Polyimide These thermoplastics are produced in the form of solids, films or solutions. They have unusual heat-resisting properties up to 750oF (400oC), low coefficient of friction, high degree of radiation resistance, and good electrical properties. Products from this include sleeve bearing, valves seats, tubing, and various electrical components. The films, tough and strong, are used for wire insulation, motor insulation, and printed circuit backing [17]. ABS (Acrylonitrile, Butadiene, and Styrene) This plastic can be compounded to have a degree of hardness or great flexibility and toughness. The ABS plastics are used in applications that requires abuse resistance, colourability, hardness, electrical and moisture properties, and limited heat (2200oF (105oC). These plastics and processed by thermoforming injection, flow, rotational, and extrusion moulding. Applications include household piping, cameras, electrical hand tool housings, telephone handsets, and canoes [12]. Vinyl Resins These thermoplastic materials can be processed by compression or injection moulding, extrusion, or blow moulding. Vinyl resins are suitable especially for surface coating and flexible and rigid sheeting. The vinyl resins commercially available include polyvinyl chlorides (PVCs), butyrates, and polyvinylidene chloride. Polyvinyl chloride has a high degree of resistance, to many solvents and does not support combustion. It is used for rubberlike products including raincoat, packaging and blow-moulded bottles. Polyvinyl butyrate is a clear tough resin, which is used for interlayers in safety glasses, raincoats, sealing fuel tanks, and flexible moulded products. It has moisture resistance, great adhesiveness, and stability towards light and heat [17]. 2.1.2.2 THERMOSETS These plastics require heat and pressure to mould them into shape. They are formed into a permanent shape and cured or ‘set by chemical reactions such as extensive cross-linking. They cannot be re-melted or reformed into another shape but decompose upon being heated to too high a temperature. Thus thermosets cannot be recycled, whereas thermoplasts can be recycled. The term thermoset implies that heat is required to permanently set the plastic. Most thermosets composed of long chains that are strongly cross-linked (and/or covalently bonded) to one another to form 3-D network structures to form a rigid solid. Thermosets are generally stronger, but more brittle than thermoplasts [10, 11]. An advantage of thermosets for engineering design applications includes the following: high thermal stability, high dimensional stability, high rigidity, light weight, high electrical and thermal insulating properties and resistance to creep and deformation under load. There are two methods whereby cross-linking reaction can be initiated cross-linking can be accomplished by heating the resin in a suitable mould (e.g. bakelite), or resins such as epoxies (araldite) are cured at low temperature by the addition of a suitable cross-linking agent, an amine. Epoxies, vulcanized rubbers, phenolics, unsaturated polyester resins, and amino resins (ureas and melamines) are examples of thermosets [10, 11]. Phenolics These resins for popular for thermosetting applications. The synthetic resign, made by the reactions of phenol with formaldehyde, forms a hard, high-strength, durable material that is capable of being moulded under a variety of conditions. It is characterized by excellent thermal stability to over 150oC (that is, has high heat and water resistance) and can be coloured in a variety of way; may be compounded with a large number of resins, fillers [12]. It is used in manufacturing coating materials, laminated products, grinding wheels, and metals as well as glass bonding agents, and can be cast into moulded cases, bottle caps, knobs, dials, knife handles, electrical appliance cabinets and numerous electrical parts [17]. Epoxy Resins Epoxy resins, both monomers and oligomers, can be powders or they can be thick and clear or yellow liquids with strong and unpleasant odours. They are known for their excellent adhesion, chemical and heat resistance, excellent mechanical and good electrical insulating properties. Moulding a fibre reinforced epoxy composite is much easier compared to other thermoset resins [19]. The typical applications of epoxy are in adhesives, electrical parts, coating and lamination process, moulds/dies/tools and in military, biomedical and automotive fields. Epoxy being a thermoset polymer, during the process of curing, when mixed with curing agent or harder, polymerises and cross-links. In other words, this curing agent reacts with epoxy resin monomers to form epoxy product. The curing agent selection will determine to a large extent the performance of the final epoxy composite. Table 2 below shows the properties of epoxy resins. Table 2.2 Properties of Epoxy resins Epoxy resins are the major part of the class of adhesives called ‘structural adhesives. These high performance adhesives are normally used in the construction of aircraft, automobiles, bicycles, golf clubs, snowboards and other applications where strength bond are required. Also, they are exceptional adhesives for wood, metal, glass, and some plastics. Epoxy resins can be made flexible of rigid, transparent, opaque or coloured and fast setting or extremely slow setting. Furthermore, epoxy adhesives are unmatched in heat and chemical resistance among other adhesives. Usually requires heat curing for maximum performance [22]. Therefore epoxy adhesives cured with heat will be more heat and chemical resistant than those cured at room temperature. Also, the peak adhesion strengths achievable for epoxy/metal interfaces depends greatly on the types and sequences of wet chemicals used to treat the surface. For all these reasons, they are used in high performance and decorative flooring applications too [22]. Epoxy coatings are also widely used as primers to improve the adhesion of automotive and marine paints especially on metal surfaces where corrosion resistance is important. However, they are not used in the outer layer of a boat as they can deteriorate when exposed to ultra violet light. But they are often used during boat repair and assembly and also over-coated with conventional paints or marine varnishes which can provide ultra violet protection [23]. Also, metal cans and containers are often coated with epoxy to prevent rusting especially for foods like tomatoes, which are acidic in nature. In addition, epoxy resin is an excellent electrical insulator too. It helps to protect electrical components from short-circuiting due to dust and moisture. Hence, epoxy resins are important in the electronic industry, finding application in motors, generators, transformers, switchgears, bushings and insulators. Also, in the electronic industry, epoxy resins are the primary resin used in moulding integrated circuits, transistors and hybrid circuits. The cured epoxy is an insulator and a much better conductor of heat than air. Using epoxy in transformers and inductors greatly reduces hot spots which in turn give the component a stable and longer life than unprotected products [24]. Another interesting property of epoxy is that it does not stick to mould release compounds like paraffin wax, polyethylene sheeting, sandwich bags and the non glued side of packaging tape which is of great use during lay-ups and also during the manufacturing of precision parts. Though epoxy resins are more expensive than any other resins such as polyester resins, in brief, the purpose of selecting epoxy as the base resin for this research is because of its un-matching high chemical and thermal resistance, good adhesion to various materials, compatibility with various substrates and other additives, low shrinkage, availability of solvent free formulations, light in colour, easy to control viscosity and low vapour pressure besides holding good to excellent mechanical properties and very good electrical insulating properties. The properties of polymers depend largely on the structures of individual polymer molecules, molecule shape and size as well as how molecules are arranged to form a polymer structure. Polymer molecules are characterised by their very large size a feature that distinguished them from other most organic chemical compositions. 2.1.2.3 ELASTOMERS Polymers are long-chain molecules that are formed by polymerization (that is by linking and cross-linking of different monomers. A monomer is the basic building block of a polymer. One of the fascinating properties of the elastomeric materials is their rubber-like elasticity. That is, they have the ability to be deformed to quite large deformations, and then elastically spring back to their original form. This results from the cross-links in the polymer that provides a force to restore the chains to their undeformed conformations. Elastomeric behaviour was probably fist observed in natural rubber; however, the past few years have brought about the synthesis of a large number of elastomers with a wide variety of properties. Typical stress-strain characteristic of elastomeric materials is displayed in figure 2 curve. Upon stretching, it is immediately noted that there is a flat region in the stress-strain curve. This essentially means that after an initial elongation, there is a region stretching which occurs without increasing strain. 2.2 CRYSTALLIZATION, MELTING AND GLASS TRANSITION Polymers are known by their high sensitivity of mechanical and/or thermal properties. This section explains their thermal behaviour. During processing of polymers, they are cooled with/ without presence of presence from liquid state to form final product. During cooling, an ordered solid phase may be formed having a highly random molecular structure. This process is called crystallization. The melting occurs when a polymer is heated. If the polymer during cooling retains amorphous or non-crystalline state i.e. disordered molecular structure, rigid solid may be considered as frozen liquid resulting from glass transition. Thus, enhancement of either mechanical and/or thermal properties needs to consider crystallization, melting, and the glass transition. Crystallization and the mechanism involved play an important role as it influences the properties of plastics. As in solidification of metals, polymer crystallization involves nucleation and growth. Near to solidification temperature at favourable places, nuclei forms, and then nuclei grow by the continued ordering and alignment of additional molecular segments. Extent of crystallization is measured by volume change as there will be a considerable change in volume during solidification of a polymer. Crystallization rate is dependent on crystallization temperature and also on the molecular weight of the polymer. Crystallization rate decreases with increasing molecular weight. Melting of polymer involves transformation of solid polymer to viscous liquid upon heating at melting temperature, Tm. Polymer melting is distinctive from that of metals in many respects melting takes place over a temperature range; melting behaviour depends on history of the polymer; melting behaviour is a function of rate of heating, where increasing rate results in an elevation of melting temperature. During melting there occurs rearrangement of the molecules from ordered state to disordered state. This is influenced by molecular chemistry and structure (degree of branching) along with chain stiffness and molecular weight. 2.3 POLYMER COATING The task of coating technology is to provide surface protection, decorative finish and numerous special functions for commodities and merchandise by means of organic coatings. Many everyday products are only made useable and thus saleable because their surface treatment. To achieve this, relevant coating formulations, their production plant, the coating material and suitable coating processes for product must be available. However, the quality to be achieved by means of coating process is not the only function of the coating material used. The object to be painted or coated itself with its specific material and design and appropriate application process are further variables which play a significant role. Coating itself is a layer of material which is applied to a surface to decorate, preserve, protect, seal, or smooth the substrate; usually applied by brushing, spraying, mopping, or dipping [26]. There are two principal technologies that are the backbone of the coatings industry: Ø Liquid coating technology (wet), which has been applied for more than two centuries Ø Powder coating technology (dry), which has been applied on an industrial scale for some 30 years. 2.3.1 WHY POWDER COATING The global average annual growth for powder coatings has been approximately 7-9% over the last 10 years. From country to country worldwide these figures have varied considerably. This relatively high performance has been achieved by autonomous growth on the one side and by replacing liquid coatings on the other. Powder coating involves applying a finely grounded resin (powder) to a substrate and subjecting this powder to heat. During the heating process, the powder melts and creates a uniform, continuous coating [26]. The use of powder coating as a finishing process has grown significantly in the past several years. It dates back to the 1950s when powders were flamed-sprayed on metallic surfaces to protect them from corrosion and abrasion. As the process evolved, most powder-coating application involved lowering a heated part (sometimes referred to as a â€Å"ware† or a â€Å"substrate†) into a bed of fluidized powder. However, this process resulted in inconsistent film thickness. Electrostatic introduced in the early 1960s, enabled powder coatings to be applied to cold substrates, resulting in more uniform, thinner surface application and thus, savings in raw materials [26]. Today, powder-coating processes are employed in many production settings involving protective finishes. Powder formulations can be created to deliver cosmetic, protective, and longevity characteristic, and to achieve maximum hardness, chemical resistance, and gloss retention. More and more companies have turned to powder coating as a way to produce a high-quality finish while increasing production rates, cutting costs, and complying with increasing environmental pressures. Also, ongoing technological breakthroughs are continually knocking down the few barriers that hindered powder coatings ability to grow in the market. 2.4 POWDER COATING MANUFACTURING PROCESS The process of producing a powder coating is somewhat more complex, the equipments are numerous and the production time is somewhat long. This process can be simplified into 4 basic stages. 2.4.1 PREMIXTURE This is the first stage in the manufacture of a powder coating and is the most crucial for production. In this stage, the various sizes of resin flake, pigment powder, etc must be transformed into a homogeneous blend of similar sizes before they enter the extrusion stage. This is for the fact that the extruder is a simple melt mixer and not a very efficient disperser; the premix equipment consists of a mixing bowl with a locking cover. The equipment is usually fitted with a cooling jacket capable of being filled with running water or cryogenic gases. Inside the mixing bowl are mixing-blades placed at different heights and orientation to one another depending on the machine configuration [27]. 2.4.2 EXTRUSION This is the second stage of the powder coat manufacture. The extruder is composed of a horizontally placed barrel. Within the barrel is a cylindrical screw shaft that is slightly smaller than the barrel in diameter. As the shaft turns, the premix moves forward through heated mixing zones. The mixing zones contain attachments called paddles that knead the melted premix and blends the various ingredients. 2.4.3 GRINDING The third phase (grinding stage) is very important to its performance. This is because the average particle size and distribution are important in the application properties and final surface appearance. In the grinder, grinds the chilled and pressed extruded mix into fine particles. This is usually done using, impact/hammer mill, air jet mill or the air classifier mill. 2.4.4 SIFTING AND CLASSIFYING The final structuring of the particle size is accomplished by passing the ground materials through sieves or cyclonic separators. This is to sort out the distribution and average particle size of the powder. 2.5 ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF POWDER COATING Although equipment and materials cost are similar in powder-coating and liquid-coating processes, yet powder coating processes provide a number of advantages over other surface coating methods. These include: Fewer rejects. Less floor space required. Less material waste. Lower energy costs. Lower training and labour costs. Lower waste-disposal costs. More efficient cleaning operations. More uniform finishes. Powder coating materials are immediately ready for use. They do not have to be mixed with any other ingredients such as solvents or catalysts and are easy to apply, thus labour costs associated with training, setup, and processing are low when compared with liquid-coating processes [26]. Liquid coating usually requires thinning before application, leading to additional material and labour costs. This is not the case with powder coating. Liquid paint requires flash-off time before surface can re recoated which is not applicable to powder, meaning that racks can be spaced closer together and thus more parts per hour can be processed [25]. Powder coating processes results in fewer rejects than liquid coating processes. Since the former is a dry process, air and water associated problems such as sags, runs, and contaminations are almost eliminated. Blowing off the surface with an air hose and reapplying the powder can easily repair coating rejects in booth or application area. 2.5.1 THERMOSETTING POWDER Most powder coating materials are thermosetting powders. The greatest technological advances in powder coatings are being made in this area. Thermosetting powders are composed of solid resins higher in molecular weight than resigns found in liquid coatings and lower in molecular weight than those found in thermoplastics. The solid resins melt and flow chemically, and cross-link within themselves or with other relative components forming a higher molecular weight reaction product. The coating film formed by this reaction is heat stable and will not soften back to a liquid on further exposure to heat (Wick and Veilleux 1985). At these higher temperatures, a coating emerges with different chemical properties than before heating. Cured coatings have different chemical structures than basic resins. Newly formed cured materials are heat stable and will not re-melt to liquid after further exposure to heat. These powders are ground from brittle resin systems into fine particles in the range of 0.004 0.0016 in (10 40 um) or less. ‘Due to the rheology of these resin systems, they can produce thin like paint coatings in the range of 0.001 0.003 in (25 75 ÃŽ ¼m) with properties equivalent or superior to coatings produced from liquid-compliance technologies [33]. The types of resins commonly used in thermosetting powder include:  § Several types of epoxies  § Hydroxyl and carboxyl types of polyesters  § Several types of acrylics, and  § Several types of silicones. They require lower temperatures for curing than thermoplastic resins. Table 2.4 Main properties of different types of thermosetting powder coatings[27] Thermosetting powders chemical reaction begins in oven. Ovens produce and maintain heat-the sole cause of chemical reaction needed for in powder coating. P

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Role and Structure of Greek Tragedy in Philip Roth’s Eli the Fanati

The Role and Structure of Greek Tragedy in Philip Roth’s Eli the Fanatic When one’s in pain—physical, mental, or emotional—one always believes it is worse than everyone else’s. Yet when an acquaintance bemoans a bad day, one still manages to wave it off: it could not be worse than one’s own pain. Even if it is a past pain and there are only scars, those scars are tenderer than the friend’s current sores. Individuals forget that anguish can be shared and another’s intervention can diminish it. This theme has been around for millennia and was particularly explored in the works of Greek tragedians. In Eli, the Fanatic Philip Roth employs structural and thematic elements of Greek tragedy to illustrate that human beings can be responsible for each other’s suffering. One of the essential elements of Greek tragedy, that of the chorus, can be filled in by Ted, Shirley, and even Miriam. They are the residents of Woodenton who call Eli. Traditionally, the chorus plays an active role and can be a sounding and advising board for the protagonist. Ted in particular tries to advise Eli and, like the customary chorus, he represents the masses, the people, in this particular case the town of Woodenton. As Ted informs Eli, â€Å"The Jewish members of the community appointed me, Artie, and Harry to -2 see what could be done† (276). The Greek chorus, in Greek tragedy, represents the masses and often serves to counterpoint the protagonist, and Ted’s near-fanatical grudge against the Yeshiva certainly counterpoints with Eli’s growing benevolence toward them. In Roth’s context, the residents of Woodenton, the Chorus, also serve as a counterpoint to Eli’s guilt. Eli becomes concerned over the Greenie’s happiness a... ...s Eli who, as he awakens to the laws of Gods, also becomes aware that just as there are laws beyond those he preaches, there is pain beyond his own. Greek tragedies were successful in that they taught viewers how to extend their compassion, and Roth duplicates this motive. He suggests that if one is willing to accept the laws of God, then one can also help others. It is an idealistic message perhaps, but when one is suffering, one wants to believe that others are concerned, even if they don’t physically share the pain. -7 Works Cited McDonald, Marianne. â€Å"Seamus Heaney’s Cure at Troy: Politics and Poetry.† Classics Ireland. 1996. University College Dublin. 13 Feb. 2006. ssics/classicsinfo/96/McDonald96.html> Roth, Philip. Goodbye, Columbus. NY: Vintage International, 1959.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Hawk Essay -- English Literature Essays

The Hawk Essay Ted Hughes and Robbin Jeffers offer many similarities and differences in their poems about hawks. Although written using contrasting styles, the poems share numerous ideas and themes. These ideas include power against weakness, arrogance, and exultation of hawks as God ¡Ã‚ ¦s chosen ruler. Yet, Hughes and Jeffers show different attitudes towards hawks, one acting as a dictator of Creation, and the other as a defeated, but still respectable bird. The issue of power versus weakness is transmitted strongly in both poems. In  ¡Ã‚ §Hawk roosting ¡Ã‚ ¨, the hawk ¡Ã‚ ¦s image is captured in an authoritative tone, especially by the enhancement of first person view. The hawk ¡Ã‚ ¦s domination and power is highlighted in the poem by describing its supreme position above all in almost all aspects of its life.  ¡Ã‚ §I sit in the top of the wood, my eyes closed ¡Ã‚ ¨ conveys a sense of forceful peace, as if the hawk knows it holds so much power that it is fearless and can roost confidently without being attacked. To  ¡Ã‚ §sit in the top of the wood ¡Ã‚ ¨ also demonstrates a noble rank, resembling the king in the human royal monarchy. The line  ¡Ã‚ §I kill where I please because it is all mine ¡Ã‚ ¨ emphasises the power the hawk believes he holds, as if he has ownership over Creation. Meanwhile, all other creations made by God are symbols of inferiority, acting to serve the hawk and die when he chooses for them to die. For example,  ¡Ã‚ §Now I hold Creation in my foot ¡Ã‚ ¨ suggests tat he holds the trees limbs, a foundation of life, under his grasp. The manner in which he dictates the maintenance of law under his reign as seen in  ¡Ã‚ §My eyes has permitted no change. I am going to keep things like this ¡Ã‚ ¨ also conveys the idea that the hawk alone can overcome any other force. Similarly,  ¡Ã‚ §Hurt Hawks ¡Ã‚ ¨ also creates the issue of power against weakness. Despite the fact that the hawk ¡Ã‚ ¦s wing is injured and cannot fly,  ¡Ã‚ §cat nor coyote will shorten the week of waiting for death. ¡Ã‚ ¨ This illustrates how high the hawk is in the food chain and how domineering he is in nature.  ¡Ã‚ §At distance no one but death the redeemer will humble that head ¡Ã‚ ¨ emphasises again that the hawk rules the land, and nothing but death will claim him. In the final lines  ¡Ã‚ §but what soared; the fierce rush; the night  ¡V herons by the flooded river cried fear at its rising ¡Ã‚ ¨ shows the everlasting power of the hawk. Despite the loss of its... ...k, results in a highly negative image. For example,  ¡Ã‚ §there is no sophistry in my body. My manners are tearing off heads  ¡V the allotment of death ¡Ã‚ ¨ conveys a tone of malice and savageness. Thus the idea of hawk is critical. On the other hand, Jeffers admires the courage of the hawk in his poem. He describes the submission in the bird, and the agony if experiences since it is physically stronger than other creatures but is now powerless. There is a sense of pity and sympathy as Jeffers describes the internal strength the hawk tries to maintain. Admiration is depicted in  ¡Ã‚ §Beautiful and wild, the hawk, and men that are dying, remember him, ¡Ã‚ ¨ where he suggests that even men pay respect to the boldness the hawk possesses. These contrasting concepts of criticism ad admiration are responsible for the difference of ideas expressed in the two poems. Through analysing the poems in terms of these subjects, attitudes and themes, similarities and differences can be made. Whilst the idea of power against weakness, arrogance and exultation of hawk ¡Ã‚ ¦s role in creation is supported by both Hughes and Jeffers ¡Ã‚ ¦ poems, the impressions of criticism and respect towards the eagles are contrasting. The Hawk Essay -- English Literature Essays The Hawk Essay Ted Hughes and Robbin Jeffers offer many similarities and differences in their poems about hawks. Although written using contrasting styles, the poems share numerous ideas and themes. These ideas include power against weakness, arrogance, and exultation of hawks as God ¡Ã‚ ¦s chosen ruler. Yet, Hughes and Jeffers show different attitudes towards hawks, one acting as a dictator of Creation, and the other as a defeated, but still respectable bird. The issue of power versus weakness is transmitted strongly in both poems. In  ¡Ã‚ §Hawk roosting ¡Ã‚ ¨, the hawk ¡Ã‚ ¦s image is captured in an authoritative tone, especially by the enhancement of first person view. The hawk ¡Ã‚ ¦s domination and power is highlighted in the poem by describing its supreme position above all in almost all aspects of its life.  ¡Ã‚ §I sit in the top of the wood, my eyes closed ¡Ã‚ ¨ conveys a sense of forceful peace, as if the hawk knows it holds so much power that it is fearless and can roost confidently without being attacked. To  ¡Ã‚ §sit in the top of the wood ¡Ã‚ ¨ also demonstrates a noble rank, resembling the king in the human royal monarchy. The line  ¡Ã‚ §I kill where I please because it is all mine ¡Ã‚ ¨ emphasises the power the hawk believes he holds, as if he has ownership over Creation. Meanwhile, all other creations made by God are symbols of inferiority, acting to serve the hawk and die when he chooses for them to die. For example,  ¡Ã‚ §Now I hold Creation in my foot ¡Ã‚ ¨ suggests tat he holds the trees limbs, a foundation of life, under his grasp. The manner in which he dictates the maintenance of law under his reign as seen in  ¡Ã‚ §My eyes has permitted no change. I am going to keep things like this ¡Ã‚ ¨ also conveys the idea that the hawk alone can overcome any other force. Similarly,  ¡Ã‚ §Hurt Hawks ¡Ã‚ ¨ also creates the issue of power against weakness. Despite the fact that the hawk ¡Ã‚ ¦s wing is injured and cannot fly,  ¡Ã‚ §cat nor coyote will shorten the week of waiting for death. ¡Ã‚ ¨ This illustrates how high the hawk is in the food chain and how domineering he is in nature.  ¡Ã‚ §At distance no one but death the redeemer will humble that head ¡Ã‚ ¨ emphasises again that the hawk rules the land, and nothing but death will claim him. In the final lines  ¡Ã‚ §but what soared; the fierce rush; the night  ¡V herons by the flooded river cried fear at its rising ¡Ã‚ ¨ shows the everlasting power of the hawk. Despite the loss of its... ...k, results in a highly negative image. For example,  ¡Ã‚ §there is no sophistry in my body. My manners are tearing off heads  ¡V the allotment of death ¡Ã‚ ¨ conveys a tone of malice and savageness. Thus the idea of hawk is critical. On the other hand, Jeffers admires the courage of the hawk in his poem. He describes the submission in the bird, and the agony if experiences since it is physically stronger than other creatures but is now powerless. There is a sense of pity and sympathy as Jeffers describes the internal strength the hawk tries to maintain. Admiration is depicted in  ¡Ã‚ §Beautiful and wild, the hawk, and men that are dying, remember him, ¡Ã‚ ¨ where he suggests that even men pay respect to the boldness the hawk possesses. These contrasting concepts of criticism ad admiration are responsible for the difference of ideas expressed in the two poems. Through analysing the poems in terms of these subjects, attitudes and themes, similarities and differences can be made. Whilst the idea of power against weakness, arrogance and exultation of hawk ¡Ã‚ ¦s role in creation is supported by both Hughes and Jeffers ¡Ã‚ ¦ poems, the impressions of criticism and respect towards the eagles are contrasting.