Monday, January 27, 2020

Bidding Strategy of Construction Companies

Bidding Strategy of Construction Companies Introduction This report aims to assess the value to construction companies of having a defined bidding strategy that is complied with when tendering for new work. The majority of construction companies have a bidding strategy of some form whether it is specified or not, in the instance that a company does not engage in a process of selection when approaching new work then they will offer little value as they would be pricing every job available regardless of the contract value, location, programme or their previous experience of that type of work. At the time of writing the UK economy (in particular the construction industry) remains gripped by the instability and uncertainty created by the financial market turmoil that occurred throughout 2007 2008 leading to the greatest economic crisis and subsequent recession since the Great Depression of the 1930s (Brunnermeier, Markus K., 2009). As such construction companies are faced with a market place as competitive as any in living memory, for most turnover and profits have dropped significantly and this subsequently applies extra emphasis to the importance of the tendering process. The report will firstly review the literature available on bidding strategies in the construction industry with a brief review of the effects of the recession on contractors bidding prices. The literature review will then be advanced upon by conducting an assessment of the bidding strategy utilised by Dawn Construction Ltd, a main contractor operating in the central belt of Scotland. 2.0 Bidding Strategy 2.1 Definition A bidding strategy can be described as a wide range of applied techniques and timing in order to achieve predetermined objectives. Brook (2008) offers the following analogy It is interesting to note that in military terms, the word strategy means the skilful management of an army in such a way as to deceive the enemy and win a campaign. In business the stated objectives can sometimes be achieved by deceiving the opposition but principally the specified objective is to be successful in winning contracts at prices which would allow the organisation to carry out the work profitably In effect a bidding strategy is the decision by a company on which work to price for and the level of profit to incorporate in order to successfully secure the project and maintain the businesses financial security. 2.2 The Tender Process Under traditional circumstances the tender process for a contractor commences with the clients invitation to tender. Upon receipt the contractors response will be shaped by several factors, ultimately though the volume of available work will determine the eagerness of the contractor to price the tender. Very few contractors will actually outright decline the opportunity to price work for a reputable client, in the instance where the contractor does not want to price a tender for whatever reason it is more likely that he will price the work using uncompetitive rates in order to ensure they do not win the contract.(Smith, 1995) This practice is commonly referred to as cover pricing and the primary objective of it is for the contractor to avoid work that he does not want to undertake without insulting the client and being removed from his future tender lists. Although cover pricing was made illegal in 2000, it is still regularly employed by contractors who differentiate between submitti ng a price that is non-competitive and the act of colluding with others in a bid-rigging process. (Bingham, 2009) 2.3 Decision to Tender Prior to committing to pricing a project a contractor must carefully consider his decision to tender as every job he prices costs the company money and reduces the resources available to price other work. Some contractors engage in a grading system when they receive a tender (i.e. a grading range of 1-4), this is in order to prioritise enquiries and put emphasis on winning the types of projects best suited to the company. Others prefer to approach each tender with the aspiration of winning the contract, allowing their price to be influenced only by perceived risk and relevant market factors. Where circumstances change during the bidding process perhaps the contractor wins another contract unexpectedly this can be taken into account at adjudication stage. (Cook Williams, 2004) Cooke Williams (2004) cite the following as key factors in influencing a contractors decision to tender: General Is it our kind of work? What is the current workload? Working Capital Is there sufficient working capital to fund the project? What will be the effect on company financial resources? Availability of Resources Do we have the resources available to price? Do we have the site labour available to undertake? Are suitable subcontractors available? Location Is the project located within our trading area? What management and control problems will there be with a contract located some miles from head office? Size Type of Work What is the monetary value of the project? Is the contract too big for the company to undertake? How did the company perform on similar types of work in the past? Subcontract element What is the extent and value of the contractors work in the project compared with the subcontract element? Is the main contractor simply being asked to manage a number of subcontractors? Is a reasonable mark-up on subcontractors likely? General Is it our kind of work does it fit into strategic plan? What is the current workload in both the contracts division and the estimating section? Do we have the financial and management resources to undertake the work? Working Capital Is sufficient working capital available to fund the project? What will be the effect on company financial resources? The working capital required to fund a  £500,000.00 project will be approximately 15-20% of the monetary value at the peak funding month (say  £100,000- £150,000) Availability of Resources General management personnel (e.g. contracts managers, planning engineers, quantity surveyors) Site management (e.g. site agents, foremen/gangers, site engineers) Labour and plant Subcontractors are suitable subcontractors available and what is their resource situation? Location Is the project located within our trading area? What management and control problems will there be with a contract located some miles from head office? Size Type of Work What is the monetary value of the project? Is the contract too big for the company to undertake? Taking on a project which is too big could be damaging to future planning and growth What impact will there be on the viability of the business if the contract fails to make an adequate margin? If a contractor with an annual turnover of  £10 million wins a  £4 million contract and this project makes a loss, the whole business could be put at risk. A major project could give the company severe liquidity problems How did the company perform on similar types of work in the past? Bibliography Construction planning programming Control Brian Cooke Peter Williams Finance Control for Construction Chris March

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Macbeth :: essays research papers

I am going to prove that in the play Macbeth, a symbol of blood is portrayed often(and with different meanings), and that it is a symbol that is developed until it is the dominating theme of the play towards the end of it. To begin with, I found the word "blood", or different forms of it forty-two times (ironically, the word fear is used forty-two times), with several other passages dealing with the symbol. Perhaps the best way to show how the symbol of blood changes throughout the play, is to follow the character changes in Macbeth. First he is a brave honoured soldier, but as the play progresses, he becomes a treacherous person who has become identified with death and bloodshed and shows his guilt in different forms. The first reference of blood is one of honour, and occurs when Duncan sees the injured sergeant and says "What bloody man is that?". This is symbolic of the brave fighter who been injured in a valiant battle for his country. In the next passage, in which the sergeant says "Which smok''d with bloody execution", he is referring to Macbeth''s braveness in which his sword is covered in the hot blood of the enemy. After these few references to honour, the symbol of blood now changes to show a theme of treachery and treason. Lady Macbeth starts this off when she asks the spirits to "make thick my blood,". What she is saying by this, is that she wants to make herself insensitive and remorseless for the deeds which she is about to commit. Lady Macbeth knows that the evidence of blood is a treacherous symbol, and knows it will deflect the guilt from her and Macbeth to the servants when she says "smear the sleepy grooms with blood.", and "If he do bleed, I''ll gild the faces of the grooms withal, for it must seem their guilt." When Banquo states "and question this most bloody piece of work," and Ross says "is''t known who did this more than bloody deed?", they are both inquiring as to who performed the treacherous acts upon Duncan. When Macbeth is speaking about Malcolm and Donalbain, he refers to them as "bloody cousins" A final way, and perhaps the most vivid use of the symbol blood, is of the theme of guilt. First Macbeth hints at his guilt when he says "Will all great Neptune''s ocean wash this blood clean from my hand?", meaning that he wondered if he would ever be able to forget the dastardly deed that he had committed. Then the ghost of Banquo, all gory, and bloody comes to

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Analysis of the Roots That Created Bigger Thomas

Thomas, give rise to strident yet silent clues, which will help understand some of the underlying roots that drove Bigger Thomas to submit to a life of criminal activities. The first aspect that contributes to Mr.. Thomas' downfall Is the brutal and unfair racial perceptions of his time. Bigger Thomas is accused of a crime which he did not commit. The rape of a white wealthy woman named Mary. Although Bigger Thomas did not commit the rape, he will always be accused of such behavior for being black. As stated by Bigger himself: † All those white men In a group, guns In their hands, ant be wrong.I do not know of what but I know that I am no good†. Richard Wright wants to show that although what occurs to Bigger Thomas is strictly accidental and innocent, the white man's oppression has the power to turn any black man into a beast, a rapist, and a killer. It is inevitable! In other words, Bigger Thomas represents the black race as a whole, the black man to be more specific. N o matter how innocent the black man is at first or at birth, circumstances and life changing events will turn him into what he was preconceived to be: a beast.The second aspect that contributes to Bigger Thomas' creation and destruction is his family. Bigger Thomas, like most African-Americans of his time, was raised without a father, whether It be through abandonment or unfortunate accident. At an early age, Bigger Thomas Is forced to assume the Father figure of the household. HIS mother's constant disapproval of him as well as his younger sister's criticism weighs heavily on the person he became: a Black man who will never have the respect he deserves from society as well as his family. The third aspect that added to the creation and destruction of Bigger Thomas is he Dalton.One symbolic view that supports this idea is the fact that Mrs.. Dalton is blind. She is blind to the social stigma of blackness, prejudices, and injustices around her. Mr.. Dalton on the other hand, even from a good heart, does not realize his contributions to the collapse of many men like Bigger Thomas. Although he views himself as a philanthropist, racial laws that Mr.. Talon's business abides to concerning housing leave the blacks feeling exploited and used. The Dalton do not realize the effect of racism on the oppressed and the effect of racism on the oppressor.They represent the small percentage of whites that view themselves as advocates for the black race while being completely oblivious to the harm that they are actually causing. Although external stimuli sun as racial prejudices, oppression, ten lack AT respect from society and from his family have a say to the demise of Bigger Thomas, it would be unjust to not also give Bigger his share of responsibility. Bagger's his own person and should be able to see the difference between right or wrong. However, it is clear that growing up in the circumstances that Bigger Thomas did, one could say he never stood a chance in hell.

Friday, January 3, 2020

The Yellow Wallpaper, By Charlotte Perkins Gilman And A...

Unaccustomed The short stories, â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper,† written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman and â€Å"A Rose for Emily,† written by William Faulkner, have a lot in common regarding the main characters. Each narrative focuses on the lifestyle and behavior of a bizarre woman who has been kept away for a certain period of time. One could argue that these women were not initially deranged, though something must have occurred to send them on such a downward spiral. The main characters in each account, Jane and Miss Emily, endure situations in their lives which prove to be crucial in the development of their mental illness, and being isolated gradually causes their illness to escalate. Jane and Miss Emily both face a monumental change in their lives, which results in the conclusion that mental illness is the cause of their strange behavior. The women face profoundly different catastrophes; however, each occurrence involves their families. In Charlotte Perkins Gilman†™s â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper,† during an exchange between John and Jane, John explains, â€Å"I beg of you, for my sake and for our child’s sake, as well as for your own, that you will never for one instant let that idea enter your mind!† (Gilman 137). Jane gives birth to a little baby boy, which is when her life takes a turn for the worse. Jane begins showing unusual, if not utterly insane, behavior, as well as depression and anxiety, which is a result of her post-partum depression. In William Faulkner’s, â€Å"A Rose for Emily,† heShow MoreRelatedAnalysis of A Rose for Emily, by William Faulkner and The Yellow Wallpaper, by Charlotte Perkins Gilman2621 Words   |  11 Pages In the short stories â€Å"A Rose for Emily† written by William Faulkner and â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper†Ã¢â‚¬  written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, the protagonists experience mental illness, loneliness, feelings of being in control of their lives, and fee lings of being insane. 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The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman and A Rose for Emily by William Faulkner are both Gothic horror stories consisting madness and suspense. The Gothic horror story carries particular conventions in its setting, theme, point of view, and characterisation. Both Gilman and Faulkner follow the conventions of the Gothic horror story to create feelings of gloom, mystery, and suspenseRead MoreComparison between The Yellow Wallpaper and A Rose for Emily969 Words   |  4 Pagesstories, â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† by Charlotte Perkins Gilman and â€Å"A Rose for Emily† by William Faulkner, b oth female protagonists, experience a time of seclusion leading to self- realization. Hence, both of these pieces of literature illustrate the troubles of women in a male-dominated society. 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