Monday, September 30, 2019

Ethical and psychological Egoism Essay

Egoism is the theory suggesting that the motivation and goal of a particular action is the self. Egoism in a general context has two variants, normative and descriptive. The concept of the descriptive variant suggests that egoism as a factual description of human affairs and cannot be described any other way (Moseley, 2006). The normative side gives a conception that individuals should be motivated, without consideration to their current state of motivation (Moseley, 2006). The two variants conflict in principle alone which insinuates a debate on the rightness or wrongness of particular human acts throughout history. Ethical Egoism Ethical Egoism is a normative ethical standpoint which implies moral people should act in accordance to their self-interest. Ethical egoism has three formulations; personal, individual and universal (Waller, 2005). Individual ethical egoism stresses that a person should do what is most beneficial to them (Waller, 2005). Personal ethical egoism suggests that actions should be grounded on a person’s own self-interest without concern to what others around him should do, while the concept of universal ethical egoism holds that everyone should act in the basis of their own interests (Waller, 2005). All in all, virtues that suffice an individual’s self-interest is egoistic, otherwise it is non-egoistic (Waller, 2005). The strong version of Ethical egoism suggests that the promotion of an individual’s own good is moral, not promoting one’s own good is deemed as immoral (Moseley, 2006). The weak version still holds that morality is the promotion of one’s own good, however, it does not necessarily mean that it is immoral (Moseley, 2006). There are just implications of conditions that the evasion of personal interest has a possibility to be moral (Moseley, 2006). Psychological Egoism Psychological Egoism, on-the-other-hand, posits that every human action has an underlying selfishness, and even altruistic acts have inner selfish motivations (Hazlitt & Cook, 1991). Psychological Egoism is a form of egoism under the descriptive variant, suggesting how people should go about themselves. The principles of psychological egoism and its assumtive nature are acquainted to several criticisms that are very crucial (Moseley, 2006). The fallacy of Psychological Egoism  The detractors of Psychological Egoism ground its fallacy on the rejection of the notion that the theory is flawless, that it is structured in such a way that it cannot be approved or disapproved (Hazlitt & Cook, 1991). It is evident on the Psychological egoists’ advocacy that altruism is a mere act of acquiring a good feeling for doing altruistic actions. In a broader scenario, the person doing an act, either selfish or unselfish, is doing what interests him or her which makes the act ultimately selfish (Moseley, 2006). In another note, the fallacy of psychological egoism lies in the suggestion that people only do what makes them feel good. In this context, the description of a Psychological Egoist may project an unselfish person (Moseley, 2006). Furthermore, there is confusion in the concept of psychological egoism found in the object of desire and the subsequent results of the fulfillment of that desire (Moseley, 2006). The Difference between Psychological and Ethical Egoism It is of vital importance to distinguish the two from one another since the two forms of egoism conflict in advocacy, motivation and goal. Ethical Egoism per se, postulates that the promotion of an individual’s own good conforms to the standards of morality (Waller, 2005). In contrast to the Psychological Egoist claim that focuses on how people act, not on how they ought to act. The doctrine of motivation for Ethical Egoism lies within self-interest, while Psychological Egoists are motivated by the rational self-interest, even in an act that tends to be altruistic in nature. Self-Interest and Selfishness Self-interest is defined as an agent that stimulates an individual’s concern over a particular issue or matter. Self-interest is the element that governs human action. Selfishness, meanwhile is the devotion to satisfy one’s own end and interest. It is simply an individual’s concern for personal welfare. Philosophically, the two terms may be synonimous to each other as the two terms may refer to the placement of personal needs above others, however, self-interest and selfishness can be deemed independently as self-interest is a subjective element in a person’s perspective which can be directed to the self or for others.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Extra Curricular Argumentative Essay

The first advantage of extra-curricular actively Is that It provides exercise. America Is the leading country in child obesity. If sports and other actively are taken away, the obesity rate will most likely go up. Also, exercise helps the brain function better. For example, If a kid Is stuck In a room studying for hours, he will not retain as much knowledge because the brain will be exhausted. Another advantage of extra- curricular activities Is the Increase In classically. The skill of being social Is very crucial In life. People's ability to become part of an organization or make friends sets them apart from other people.An example of when this comes into play is when applying for a job. Almost all jobs require a person to work well with someone else. Also, extra-curricular activities tend to provide motivation for the student. Due to the fact that kids will be doing other activities including school work, as a result, they will be motivated to take the challenge of learning many n ew subjects. A student also has to make a certain grade to stay in sports so this pushes him to work hard and make good grades. Although it is true that kids have less time on their hands for schoolwork; however, this teaches them how to get their priorities straight.When they are older, the kids will have a lot more to focus on at once, and if they do not learn this skill at a young age they may have a very hard time when they grow up. This is another advantage that kids in extra-curricular activities have on others. Some people even say that if there were less activities, kids will focus more on academics. However, some kids use sports and other things as excuses to not do well in school. If a child really wanted to be successful academically, they would not let anything get in their way. A kid's work ethic does not necessarily depend on how much extra time he as.Instead, the extra time could be negative in a way that they could do something In that time to get in trouble. All the se factors show that extra-curricular activities are a very good thing for students. Many valuable characteristics are given due to these activities. I do not think a school system can be successful by only providing an academic curriculum. Extra-curricular activities such as sports, give students exercise, teach them how to be sociable, provide motivation, and even keep them out of trouble. The most successful school curriculum most likely consists of extra- curricular activities.The first advantage of extra-curricular activities is that it provides exercise. America is the leading country in child obesity. If sports and other activities are taken away, the example, if a kid is stuck in a room studying for hours, he will not retain as much curricular activities is the increase in sociability. The skill of being social is very crucial in life. People's ability to become part of an organization or make friends sets applying for a Job. Almost all Jobs require a person to work well wit h someone else. In that time to get in trouble. All these factors show that extra-curricular activities are

Saturday, September 28, 2019

R v Adomako, Law case Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

R v Adomako, Law case - Essay Example The Court of Appeal discussed the tests on involuntary manslaughter when related with questions of gross negligence in dismissing the case and upholding a conviction. The court was faced with confirming that the violation of the duty of care resulted into the death of the victim. It was also important to find out whether the breach of the duty resulted to the death thus justifying a criminal conviction. The appeal was thus dismissed as it failed to convince the judges of the Court of Appeal to have satisfied the test of gross negligence in manslaughter cases (Erin and Ost 2007, p.19). The House of Lords was to ascertain what established criminal negligence, whether it was by gross negligence among drivers, as claimed in R v Bateman [1925] 19 Cr.App.R.8 and Andrews v Director of Public Prosecutions [1937] A.C.576; ignoring drivers carelessness as detailed in R v Lawrence (Stephen) [1982] A.C.510, or analyse the situation by its facts (Herring 2012, p.193). The House of Lords upheld th e conviction of the appellant for the offence of manslaughter stating that the law as made in the case of R v Seymor [1983] 2 A.C.493 was not relevant to the present case as the law it was found on been changed by the Road Traffic Act of 1991 that applied presently. The rider to this is that the trial judge is at liberty to use the word according to its liberal or literal meaning only when he thinks it as appropriate to the case beforehand. From this case, the House of Lords established the examination for serious negligence in manslaughter suitcases committed though not voluntary, Lord Mackay, LC in construing this in involuntary manslaughter cases stated that the usual test of negligence applied that which constituted the breach of duty that has resulted in harm or injury (Halpin 2004, p.93). Therefore, if a breach occurred that resulted in the death of the victim, the jury would be required to find out if the gross negligence resulted in the crime of manslaughter. In his argument , this depends must depend on the seriousness of the violation of the duty committed by a defendant in the course of his duties. In the present case, what the duty is supposed to care about is whether the conduct of the defendant was far from the standard of care expected of him and that it resulted in the death of a patient. Only if the departure was far from the expectation would the act or omission be adjudged as criminal. Using R v Bateman [1925] 19 Cr.App.R.8 as a basis for Lord Mackay while quoting Lord Hewart, CJ stated that as laid down in manslaughter cases if a person holds a position of consultancy, possesses special skills and knowledge and acts on behalf of a patient he should exercise due caution. Therefore a patient who willingly submits to the direction and treatment offered by a specialist is owed a duty of care that involves the exercise of skill and knowledge, care and diligence including caution in the provision of the medical care. In finding a conviction or not , the jury is therefore required to exercise utmost care through reasonable and a fair standard of care that takes consideration of the competence of the professional involved. Lord Atkin in formulating recklessness and gross negligence cases in involuntary manslaughter cases in Andrews v Director of Public Prosecutions [1937] A.C.576

Friday, September 27, 2019

Critical Thinking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 11

Critical Thinking - Essay Example In her opinion, when such people are shamed because of something they are either doing or did in the past, many learn and quit. She however condemns the act of shaming people basing on things that are unavoidable such as maturity Towards the conclusion, the author dwells on two examples, which justify her claim that shame is good. She talks of a glutton who eats greedily and states that if such person is shamed, he or she will learn and stop the habit. After shaming them, they will stop eating too much, hence cut on their weight. 1. Angela states that everybody is ashamed of one thing or another. She provides examples such as the fact that some people are ashamed of being fat, having thick eyebrows or even failing a test and dropping out of school. 4. Angela claims that it is okay to make some people feel ashamed. To justify her claim, Angela brings out the example of somebody who eats because of pure greediness and gets fat to an extent that they are too big to fit a single bus seat. According to her, shaming such an individual will make him or her ashamed of themselves, hence lose weight and avoid health risks like heart attacks. 5. Angela also brings out an example of a woman who makes a fashion mistake like wearing a short dress yet she has short thick legs. Shaming her will make her feel embraced and she will not go out looking bad again. 6. Finally, Angela states that people should not be ashamed about some things such as early and late maturity. According to her, shame is inappropriate in a situation where something is beyond the control of an

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Heat exchanger Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Heat exchanger - Essay Example In this experiment, the shell and tube exchanger that was used comprised of a number of tubes that were parallel in a cylindrical shell which had no significance until 15%. The experiment was conducted in environmental ambient temperature and distilled was added to make it successful since it does not contain impurities and has less probability to cause damage to the equipment. There was no significant change because the percentage error obtained for heat transfer coefficients for both concurrent and counter current is below 15%. In comparison to the counter current, the overall heat exchanger for concurrent flow is under control since there was a significant change for counter current has a significant change. Based on the estimated overall heat transfer, the expected exit temperature has the percentage error for both co-current and counter current was below 15% and thus no significant change. During the experiment, the heat losses for both co-current and counter current were above the expected percentage value, therefore creating a mean of high heat losses. The percentage error of the overall heat transfer coefficient for the co-current and counter current were not as expected indicating a significant change in the co-current. This shows that the efficiency of the heat exchanger effects on parallel flow more than counter flow. Heat transfer is a widely used method of cooling warm fluids to lower temperatures while using a barrier to separate the two flows and is majorly applied in petroleum and chemical engineering. The shell and the tube heat exchanger are the equipment commonly used in this experiment because of the users’ ability to manage the pressures and temperature. In the shell and tube exchanger, the cylindrical shell is lined with some tubes internally. Its operation underlies the principle of two fluids flowing, one inside the tube and the other externally. The flows can assume either parallel or cross counter

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Early Age Marriage in Ethiopia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Early Age Marriage in Ethiopia - Essay Example Early marriage is mostly common in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. It is rampant in Ethiopia, although prevalence varies from one region to another. At the national level, 62% of Ethiopian women aged 20-49 get married before the age of 18. (4) These numbers alone provide the readers a shocking realization of how widespread early marriages are in Ethiopia. This may be a short article, but it definitely provides strong, concise, and accurate data regarding these early marriages. It also goes along well with the other chosen sources, thus strengthening the main points that will be discussed in the research paper. One of the good points in this article that makes it distinct from the other sources for the research paper is its discussion regarding the concern for HIV/AIDS related problems that occur in early marriages. Another valuable insight to be gained from this paper are the recommendations regarding strategies to be implemented to slowly reduce, and ultimately eliminate thes e problems of early marriages. The article, while short as mentioned earlier, obviously came from a well-informed research if one would look at the references, and is therefore a good addition to the other sources to be used in the research paper. Early Marriage: Child Spouses. Florence, Italy: Unicef Innocenti Research Centre, 2001. Print. This article aims to present how common are early marriages in different societies, particularly the poor ones. It presents how poverty serves as a major factor for such marriages to exist in a particular society. Furthermore, it aims to present the harmful effects of these practices. It also aims to suggest ways to end early marriages once and for all. The digest states that: Our intention is to raise awareness of the situation and, where necessary, to stimulate action. Where there is insufficient data on the practice and repercussions of early marriage, researchers and officials in both government and civil society are encouraged to initiate re search in this area. (1) Also, while it may not focus merely in Ethiopia, it can provide a view of the bigger picture of the incidence of early marriages in the different societies in the world. It will surely be useful for the research paper because it will help the researcher compare the different factors at play in early marriages from other societies, and then compare those factors to those at play in Ethiopia. Information such as early marriage as a strategy for economic survival, protecting girls, pressures for early marriages, legal sanctions for such unions, disadvantages of such unions particularly for girls, and the call for gender equality in marriage are good points to include in the research paper. Gossaye, Yegomawork, Negussie Deyessa, Yemane Berhane, Mary Ellsberg, Maria Emmelin, Meaza Ashenafi, Atalay Alem, Alemayehu Negash, Derege Kebede, Gunnar Kullgren, and Ulf Hogberg. â€Å"Women's Health and Life Events Study in Rural Ethiopia.† Butajira Rural Health Pro gram. Spec. issue of Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 17.2 (2003): 2-46. Web. 7 Mar. 2012. This peer-reviewed article is a collection of the results of several researches conducted by the Butajira Rural Health Program (BRHP) in Ethiopia. Several studies conducted by the BHRP are regarding health determinants and parameters, and this particular issue is focused on the reproductive health of females. The goal of the authors is to determine how domestic

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Week 5 posts 8000 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Week 5 posts 8000 - Essay Example Nursing is a very comprehensive field and considering they are paramedics, your master’s knowledge surpasses their levels of certification. On your second issue, you have elaborated on the high cost of nursing programs. You have compared several programs with those of similar if not lesser quality and the duration and cost that you might find unnecessary. My recommendation would be, keep your confidence on attainment of higher standards as it increases on your information on nursing. Thanks for your informative post on this week’s discussion topic. I agree that ethics assist in knowing what is wrong and what is right. In healthcare, since you are dealing with patients and their well-being integrity is an essential matter. According to Hamric, Spross, and Hanson, (2009) a nurse should learn to keep secrets, suffer and struggle. This is all to the goodwill of the patient. You have also added that ethical conflicts in the healthcare sector can arise from professional interactions, research, gender, pain, or even life issues. This is evident as the nurse’s advance in their careers. A solution to this problem you have added would be a nurse attaining a DNP. This equips them with skills to handle medical dilemma. However, you have said that they are also in a dilemma with pain management and end life crisis. You have given an example of a dialysis patient with a stroke and how the hospital went about it. The inclusion of the various professionals to explain to the family on steps to take, elaborate on ethics in the hospital. Also in the diabetic patient, it is well

Monday, September 23, 2019

Lebanon Annotated Bibliography Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Lebanon - Annotated Bibliography Example Within the context of the stated, allegiance to Lebanon is subsumed by family and blood and this is the real source of the country's division and problems. Cerulo examines the phenomenon of identity in this article. As he explains, each and every individual has multiple identities. Amongst these are primordial identity, optionalist identity and collectivist identities. A person is identified in terms of his family, his social class, his educational status, his religion, his ethnicities and his nationality, to name but a handful. None of these identities cross out or negate the other but, instead, supposedly co-exist. The real question is which of these identities dominates as the dominant identity is usually that which directs behaviour and actions. Cerulo believes that the dominant identity is a negotiated identity, one that has been constructed on the based of all the identities particular to the individual. Farour, a political sociologist, argues that Lebanon's youth are confronting an identity crisis. Not only do they have to contend with the multiple identities which are thrust upon them by the very fact that they happened to be born in a country in which familial and ethnic identities dominate over others but with the East versus West tension. They are expected to be Easterners, Arabs whose identity is defined in traditional Arab-centric cultural terms. Yet, due to their unprecedented exposure to the outside world and to Western culture, they are unable to unquestioningly accept the traditional Arab/Eastern identity. They are trapped between Eastern and Western identities and are a product of the interaction between the two. Faour believes that the country's youth is engaged in the negotiation of an identity which would draw the East and the West together. Salibi, K. (1988) A house of many mansions: The history of Lebanon reconsidered. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Salibi engages in a historical investigation of the roots of Lebanon's identity problem. As he presents it, over the past centuries Lebanon was exposed to numerous cultures, each and every one of which attempted to impose itself on the country. The Arabs tried to Arabize Lebanon, the Ottomans tried to Ottomize and the French to Frenchify it to name but a few examples. Throughout its history, Lebanon has moved from one identity to the other. The ultimate outcome was that the country was not given the opportunity to develop its own national identity, culminating in division between multiple identities. This, according to Salibi, is Lebanon's

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Heron 6 intervention categories and one to one and small group Essay

Heron 6 intervention categories and one to one and small group teaching - Essay Example The modes are the hierarchical, co-operative, and autonomous (Scaling Heights 2005). Each of the six interventions is a dimension within a delivery mode, and while the modes change impacting the role of the teacher/therapist and student/patient, the interventions remain constant dimensions within the modes (Scaling Heights 2005). Documentation is essential to the data gathering aspect of the process, and it will support the progress, or lack thereof, and guide the teacher or therapist in the planning elements and decide which intervention is applicable at the given point in time (Scaling Heights 2005). There is a suggested format for charting the outcomes which can be easily accessed on the web site that is simple in nature, yet yields a wealth of pertinent information that help in the application of the interventions (Scaling Heights 2005). Heron’s goal, his South Pacific Center for Human Inquiry reports, is to equip the professional with the information and tools which facilitate the client gaining a â€Å"plan for rational living (1998).† The six intervention process is the culmination of Heron’s own work, which has been widely studied and used in the healthcare industry (OES 1999 Scaling Heights 2005 Scottish Executive 2005). The process is one of facilitator/therapist directing, relinquishing, delegating and sharing control in the patient/student or therapeutic or academic setting (Scaling Heights 2005). The formula was the basis for a handbook developed by the Differentiated Mentoring Project for use in schools (2004). In the process, the intervention of â€Å"prescriptive† translates to planning, which depending upon the mode being utilized, rests with the therapist, or is shared by the group Scaling Heights 2005). Early on in the therapeutic relationship, when the therapist makes the decision to implement Heron’s course, the therapist will have to be firm in

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Social Support and Health and Well Being Essay Example for Free

Social Support and Health and Well Being Essay Social Support is a multidimensional construct which is not unilaterally beneficial i.e. maladaptive vicarious learning; Dependence; Provision of bad advice. It is generally thought that the more social support a person receives the more beneficial upon their health and well-being. Access to appropriate resources may protect the individual from the deleterious effects of stress Martin (1989). Lazarus and Folkman (1984) state all else being equal, morale, health and functional capabilities will be better if support is perceived to be adequate. Levels of social support a person receives have been associated with mental and physical health and well-being. In stressful times, social support helps people reduce psychological distress (e.g., anxiety or depression). Social support has been found to promote psychological adjustment in conditions with chronic high stress like HIV, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, stroke, and coronary artery disease. People with low social support report more sub-clinical symptoms of depression and anxiety than do people with high social support. In addition, people with low social support have higher rates of major mental disorder than those with high support. These include post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, and eating disorders. Social support has numerous ties to physical health, including mortality. People with low social support are at a much higher risk of death from a variety of diseases (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disease). Numerous studies have shown that people with higher social support have an increased likelihood for survival. Individuals with lower levels of social support have: more cardiovascular disease, more inflammation and less effective immune system functioning, more complications during pregnancy, and more functional disability and pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis, among many other findings. Conversely, higher rates of social support have been associated with numerous positive outcomes, including faster recovery from coronary artery surgery less susceptibility to herpes attacks, a lowered likelihood to show age-related cognitive decline, and better diabetes control. People with higher social  support are also less likely to develop colds and are able to recover faster if they are ill from a cold. There are two main hypotheses that address the link between social support and health: the buffering hypothesis and the main effects hypothesis. The main difference between these two hypotheses is that the direct effects hypothesis predicts that social support is beneficial all the time, while the buffering hypothesis predicts that social support is mostly beneficial during stressful times. Evidence has been found for both hypotheses. In the buffering hypothesis, social support protects (or buffers) people from the bad effects of stressful life events (e.g., death of a spouse, job loss). Evidence for stress buffering is found when the correlation between stressful events and poor health is weaker for people with high social support than for people with low social support. The weak correlation between stress and health for people with high social support is often interpreted to mean that social support has protected people from stress. Stress buffering is more likely to be observed for perceived support than for social integration or received support. In the main effects hypothesis, people with high social support are in better health than people with low social support, regardless of stress. In addition to showing buffering effects, perceived support also shows consistent direct effects for mental health outcomes. Both perceived support and social integration show main effects for physical health outcomes. However, received (enacted) support rarely shows main effects. Several theories have been proposed to explain social support’s link to health. Stress and coping social support theory; dominates social support research and is designed to explain the buffering hypothesis described above. According to this theory, social support protects people from the bad health effects of stressful events (i.e., stress buffering) by influencing how people think about and cope with the events. According to stress and coping theory, events are stressful insofar as people have negative thoughts about the event (appraisal) and cope ineffectively. Coping consists of  deliberate, conscious actions such as problem solving or relaxation. As applied to social support, stress and coping theory suggests that social support promotes adaptive appraisal and coping. Evidence for stress and coping social support theory is found in studies that observe stress buffering effects for perceived social support. One problem with this theory is that, as described previously, stress buffering is not seen for social integration, and that received support is typically not linked to better health outcomes. Relational regulation theory (RRT) is another theory, which is designed to explain main effects (the main effects hypothesis) between perceived support and mental health. As mentioned previously, perceived support has been found to have both buffering and direct effects on mental health. RRT was proposed in order to explain perceived support’s main effects on mental health which cannot be explained by the stress and coping theory. RRT hypothesizes that the link between perceived support and mental health comes from people regulating their emotions through ordinary conversations and shared activities rather than through conversations on how to cope with stress. This regulation is relational in that the support providers, conversation topics and activities that help regulate emotion are primarily a matter of personal taste. This is supported by previous work showing that the largest part of perceived support is relational in nature. Life-span theory is another theory to explain the links of social support and health, which emphasizes the differences between perceived and received support. According to this theory, social support develops throughout the life span, but especially in childhood attachment with parents. Social support develops along with adaptive personality traits such as low hostility, low neuroticism, high optimism, as well as social and coping skills. Together, support and other aspects of personality influence health largely by promoting health practices (e.g., exercise and weight management) and by preventing health-related stressors (e.g., job loss, divorce). Evidence for life-span theory includes that a portion of perceived support is trait-like, and that perceived support is linked to adaptive personality characteristics and attachment experiences. Many studies have tried to identify biopsychosocial pathways for the link between social support and health. Social support has been found to positively impact the immune, neuroendocrine, and cardiovascular systems. In terms of the immune system, Social support is generally associated with better immune function. For example, being more socially integrated is correlated with lower levels of inflammation (as measured by C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation), and people with more social support have a lower susceptibility to the common cold. In terms of the neuroendocrine system, Social support has been linked to lower cortisol (stress hormone) levels in response to stress. Neuroimaging work has found that social support decreases activation of regions in the brain associated with social distress, and that this diminished activity was also related to lowered cortisol levels. Finally, The Cardiovascular system and Social support have been linked as social support has been found to lower cardiovascular reactivity to stressors. It has been found to lower blood pressure and heart rates, which are known to benefit the cardiovascular system.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Consumer Expectations Before and After Purchase

Consumer Expectations Before and After Purchase Introduction: Background to research: Until recently, consumer behaviourists had many theories of satisfaction. Rather, a post decision phenomenon known as cognitive dissonance (Festinger1957) was thought to provide a sufficient framework for understanding post purchase responses. Researchers later expanded the theories more recent theoretical and empirical works (Andreasen 1977; Day 1977; Oliver 1977) generally agree that satisfaction results from a subjective comparison of the expected and received product attribute levels, as originally proposed by (Engel 1968), but that the exact nature of satisfaction process is unknown. In addition psychological concept remains in dispute. Why the customer would seek out one -and only one-branded object or brand set to fulfil his or her needs? This is the pertinent question because the present era of global competition seemingly would enable the customer to move to better alternatives as soon as they materialised. Product improvements, refinements, and innovations are new product introductions are predicted. (See cooper 1993,p.4).Satisfaction research has been â€Å"king† spawned by the widespread adoption of the marketing concept, efforts to align marketing strategy with the goal of maximizing customer satisfaction have been pursued in earnest by the product and service providers (post purchase research 1993 wylie, p.1).( Richard L Oliver journal of marketing; 1999; 63, p. 33) Context of research: The purpose of Research: 1. The purpose of this study is to balance service quality and product quality into an integrated model. 2. The management of the company can make different strategies to make the customers satisfied to full extent. 3. The outcomes of the research helps the top level managers to make their strategies in production and servicing for their products for the new and existing customers. 4. To explore the effects of the three consumer perceptions (product quality, service quality and price fairness) on satisfaction and loyal behaviour. Automobile industry maintenance service is chosen as an examined object because both â€Å"technicians, skills and parts† quality are essential to consumers. Perceived quality: As stated by Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1985), quality has been a complex but vague construct which demands further investigation for the industries to highlight product and service quality as satisfaction management. It should be defined as the consumers judgement about a products overall excellence or superiority. Consumer product perceived quality is positively related to consumer loyalty. Perceived service quality: Parsuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry established the five-gap model in 1985, which established the structure and measurement of the methods to measure service quality and consumer satisfaction were basically the same, with both based on comparisons of expectation and performance. Perceived service quality is positively related to customer satisfaction. (Journal of consumer satisfaction, dissatisfaction and complaining behaviour; 2001; 14, p 125) (Parsuraman Zeithaml, and Berry, vol 52 April 1988, p39) they indicate that consumers quality perceptions are influenced by a series of four distinct gaps occurring in organisations. The gaps on service providers side, which can impede delivery of services that consumers perceive to be of high quality, are: 1. Difference between consumer expectations and management perceptions of consumer expectations. 2. Difference between management perceptions of consumer expectations and service quality specifications. 3. Difference between service quality specifications and the service actually delivered. 4. Difference between service delivery and what is communicated about the service to consumers. The mangers of service providers need to know how to measure the service quality, and whether consumers actually purchase from the firms that have the highest level of perceived service quality or from those with which they are most â€Å"satisfied.† (Cronin, j.joseph, jr July 1992.) Expected outcomes: The aim of the proposed research is to: Develop an attractive environment in the dealers service station. Develop a good media and communication in solving the queries of the customers. The actual response of satisfaction from the customers on the company products and services. LITERATURE REVIEW: Executive summary: All marketers need to be aware of the effect of globalization, technology, and deregulation. Rather than try to satisfy everyone, marketers start with market segmentation and develop a market offering that is positioned in the minds of the target market. To satisfy the target markets needs, wants, and demands, marketers create a Product, one of the 10 types of entities (goods, services, experiences, events, persons, places, properties, organizations, information, and ideas). Marketers must search hard for the core need they are trying to satisfy, remembering that their products will be successful only if they deliver value (the ratio of benefits and costs) to customers. Every marketing exchange requires at least two parties—both with something valued by the other party, both capable of communication and delivery, both free to accept or reject the offer, and both finding it appropriate or desirable to deal with the other. One agreement to exchange constitutes a transaction, part of the larger idea of relationship marketing. Through relationship marketing, organizations aim to build enduring, mutually satisfying bonds with customers and other key parties to earn and Retain their long-term business. Reaching out to a target market entails communication channels, distribution channels, and selling channels. The supply chain, which stretches from raw materials to the final products for final buyers, represents a value delivery system. Marketers can capture more of the supply chain value by acquiring competitors or expanding upstream or downstream. In the marketing environment, marketers face brand, industry, form, and generic competition. The marketing environment can be divided into the task environment (the immediate actors in producing, distributing, and promoting the product offering) and the broad environment (forces in the demographic, economic, natural, technological, political-legal, and social-cultural environment). To succeed, marketers must pay close attention to the trends and developments in these environments and make timely adjustments to their marketing strategies. Within these environments, Marketers apply the marketing mix—the set of marketing tools used to pursue marketing objectives in the target market. The marketing mix consists of the four Ps: product, price, place, and promotion. Companies can adopt one of five orientations toward the marketplace. The production concept assumes that consumers want widely available, affordable products; the product concept assumes that consumer want products with the most quality, performance, or innovative features; the selling concept assumes that customers will not buy enough products without an aggressive selling and promotion effort; the marketing concept assumes the firm must be better than competitors in creating, delivering, and communicating customer value to its chosen target markets; and the societal marketing concept assumes that the firm must satisfy customers more effectively and efficiently than competitors while still preserving the consumers and the societys wellbeing. Keeping this concept in mind, smart companies will add â€Å"higher order† image attributes to supplement both rational and emotional benefits. The combination of technology, globalization, and deregulation is influencing customers, brand manufacturers, and store-based retailers in a variety of ways. Responding to the changes and new demands brought on by these forces has caused many companies to make adjustments. In turn, savvy marketers must also alter their marketing activities, tools, and approaches to keep pace with the changes they will face today and tomorrow. Receiving service: The convenience of receiving service is presumably lowest when a customer has to come to the service organisation and must use specific outlet. Offering service through several outlets increases the convenience of access for customers but many start to raise problems of quality control as convenience of access relates to the consistency of the service product delivered. For some type of services the companies come to customer. This is, of course, essential when the target of the service is some immovable physical item (such as a building that needs repairs or pest control treatment, or a garden that needs land-scaping). But since its usually more expensive to take service personnel and equipment to the customer than vice versa, the trend has been away from this approach to delivering consumer services. The key to generating high customer loyalty is to deliver high customer value. A companys value proposition is much more than its positioning on a single attribute. Most of the successful companies are raising expectations and delivering performances to match. These companies are aiming for TCS Total Customer Satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is both a goal and a marketing tool. Companies that achieve high customer satisfaction ratings make sure that their target market is known. After sales support management system is apart of ERP Enterprise Resource Planning solution dealing with the support module after the sales of product. It creates an advanced environment to the organization, which are in to technical support after sales e.g. Companies offering electronic goods and motor vehicles etc. The functional features include: Customer complaints tracking Service engineers information tracking Job scheduling for the complaints Spares management Online support Reports. Customer complaints tracking: Complaint is the starting point of any technical support system. With out a client request the technical support is not initiated. Complaint tracking is done as follows: Client may come down or make a phone call or complaint online The client is validated. The client may have an annual maintenance contract or may have a product in warranty or of warranty. The intensity of the complaint is to be estimated to allocate resources. Expected service type has to be finalized. It may be online assistance indoor or onsite assistance. Service Engineers Information tracking: Information about the engineers is inevitable in job scheduling. Information about the engineers has to be added, deleted or modified in the database. It may contain the following: The name, id of the engineer; the skill set of the engineer; the status of the engineer. Job scheduling for the complaints: Job scheduling means sequencing the request with respect to its intensity, Assignment of a service engineer and creating a job card. It is done to optimize the technical resources and to render the best service to the customer. Minor problem are processed by technicians and complex requests are handled by the expert team. The job card includes the following: The complaint id, the assigned engineer id, the data and time of service, the spare details, no. of man hours required etc. The spare part name and serial number. The available quantity of each spare part. The prize, warranty and other specifications. The suppliers information. Online support: The service is done online also. The client may visit the website to obtain basic support information about the product and FAQ. He can chat with the service engineer on phone or online. Report: The report reflects the current status of the system. The reports that can be generated are as follows: Customer request report and status of the system. Service engineer report provides the information about the skills and strengths of the support team. Job scheduling report states the allotment of the engineers to jobs. Spares report discloses the availability of all the spares in the system. Receipts and payments report gives information about the cash flow in the System, generation of bills: Customer satisfaction tracking: Customer satisfaction is the key concept to dictate the future of the organization. In order to maximize the customer satisfaction along with quick response and efficient service some other activities are to be performed. They may be as follows: Reception of the customer with hospitality. Entertaining environment to the customer. Providing guidance about the usage and maintenance of the product. Offering gift and discounts. Toyota company profile and Feedback and Control: As it implements its strategy, the firm needs to track the results and monitor new developments in the internal and external environments. Some environments are fairly stable from year to year. Other environments evolve slowly in a fairly predictable way. Still other environments change rapidly in significant and unpredictable ways. Nonetheless, the company can count on one thing: The marketplace will change. And when it does, the company will Need to review and revise its implementation, programs, strategies, or even objectives. A companys strategic fit with the environment will inevitably erode because the market environment changes faster than the companys 7-Ss. Thus a company might remain efficient while it loses effectiveness. Peter Drucker pointed out that it is more important to â€Å"do the right thing† (effectiveness) than â€Å"to do things right† (efficiency). The most successful companies excel at both. Once an organization fails to respond to a changed environment, it has difficulty recapturing its lost position. This happened to the once-unassailable Motorola when it was slow to respond to the new digital technology used by Nokia and others, and kept rolling out analogue phones.17 Similarly, Barnes Noble did not immediately recognize the threat posed by Amazon. COMs Internet-based book retailing model; then, as a latecomer to e-commerce, it had more of a struggle establishing itself. Clearly, the key to organizational health is the firms willingness to examine the changing environment and to adopt appropriate new goals and behaviours. High-performance organizations continuously monitor the environment and use flexible strategic planning to maintain a viable fit with the evolving environment. Toyota Motor Corporation, Japans #1 carmaker, has a driving ambition to become greener. The company makes a hybrid-powered (gas and electric) sedan the Prius that isbeing snapped up in US and European markets. Its gas-powered cars, pickups, minivans, and SUVs include such models as Camry,Corolla, 4Runner,Land Cruiser, Sienna, the luxury Lexus line, the new Scion brand, and a full-sized pickup truck, the V-8 Tundra. Toyota also makes forklifts and manufactured housing, and offers consumer financial services. Once a dark horse in the global automotive game, Toyota has begun to close the gap on General Motors and DaimlerChrysler, and has already passed Ford Motor. While most of its North American and European competitors are contracting their operations due to falling demand and overcapacity, Toyota is growing to meet increased global demand. The company has an expressed plan of gaining a global 10% share of the automotive market by the early 2010s. To do this, Toyota feels it must build the cars where, or very near where, they will be bought. To this end Toyota opened new vehicle plants in the Czech Republic in 2005 and is scheduled to open its 11th US plant in San Antonio, Texas in 2006. The greatest focus of Toyotas overseas strategy is currently in China, a country that is expected to become the second-largest car market (behind the US) by 2010. By that year Toyota wants to have a 10% market share in China. Like its competitors, Toyota is beefing up its Chinese operations by joining forces with local automotive players. With its Chinese partner China FAW Group Corporation, Toyota builds Land Cruisers and Corollas in China. Through another agreement with Guangzhou Automobile Group, Toyota began jointly developing engines in 2005. Also in association with Guangzhou Automobile, in 2006 the first Chinese-built Camry rolled off the assembly line in Nansha near Hong Kong. The Camry is the best-selling car in the US and has been a leading import in China. The Chinese-built Camrys are priced to move in an effort to quickly boost Toyotas market share. Late in 2006 Toyota fired a salvo over the deck of GM when it said it aimed to build 9.8 million vehicles by 2008. GM sold 9 .2 million vehicles in 2005 the second-largest volume the company has ever produced in a single year. The announcement came at a time when GM and its equally bedraggled US counterpart Ford are desperately trimming capacity to stay competitive. Toyota out-built Ford back in 2003 and now has GM in its sights. While growing its worldwide production base; Toyota has committed itself to leading the charge toward the development of more efficient, environmentally friendly vehicles, primarily powered by hybrid gasoline-electric technology. Toyotas global production of hybrids in 2005 totalled 151,000 units, or two-and-one-half times production levels of the previous fiscal year. Toyotas hybrid plans going forward are even more ambitious. The company says it wants to build one million hybrids by the early 2010s. In addition to the Prius, Toyota currently offers hybrid versions of the Highlander SUV and the venerable Camry. Late in 2006 Toyota bought a 5.9% stake in Isuzu Motors. The two companies plan to cooperate on engine technologies with Isuzu concentrating on small diesel engines and diesel emission controls while Toyota will focus on environmental improvements for gasoline engines and alternative fuels. The move marks the second time in as many years that Toyota has taken advantage of a broken GM alliance with a Japanese partner. Toyota bought an 8.7% stake in Fuji Heavy Industries from GM in 2005. History In 1926 Sakichi Toyoda founded Toyoda Automatic Loom Works. In 1930 he sold the rights to the loom he invented and gave the proceeds to his son Kiichiro Toyoda to begin an automotive business. Kiichiro opened an auto shop within the loom works in 1933. When protectionist legislation (1936) improved prospects for Japanese automakers, Kiichiro split off the car department, took it public (1937), and changed its name to Toyota. During WWII the company made military trucks, but financial problems after the war caused Toyota to reorganize in 1950. Its post war commitment to RD paid off with the launch of the four-wheel-drive Land Cruiser (1951); full-sized Crown (1955); and the small Corona (1957). Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., debuted the Toyopet Crown in the US in 1957, but it proved underpowered for the US market. Toyota had better luck with the Corona in 1965 and with the Corolla (which became the best-selling car of all time) in 1968. By 1970 Toyota was the worlds fourth-largest carmaker. Toyota expanded rapidly in the US. During the 1970s the oil crisis caused demand for fuel-efficient cars, and Toyota was there to grab market share from US makers. In 1975 Toyota displaced Volkswagen as the USs #1 auto importer. Toyota began auto production in the US in 1984 through NUMMI, its joint venture with GM. The Lexus line was launched in the US in 1989 Because of the European Communitys restrictions on Japanese auto imports until the year 2000, Toyotas European expansion slowed. Toyota responded in 1992 by agreeing to distribute cars in Japan for Volkswagen and also by establishing an engine plant (later moved to full auto production) in the UK. The sport utility vehicle (SUV) mania of the 1990s spurred Toyotas introduction of luxury minivans and light trucks. Hiroshi Okuda, a 40-year veteran with Toyota and the first person from outside the Toyoda family to run the firm, succeeded Tatsuro Toyoda as president in 1995. The next year Toyota consolidated its North American production units into Cincinnati-based Toyota Motor Manufacturing North America. In 1997 Toyota introduced the Prius, a hybrid electric- and gas-powered car. The next year Toyota boosted its stake in affiliate Daihatsu (mini-vehicles) to about 51% and started Toyota Map master (51%owned), to Make map databases for car navigation systems. Okuda became chairman in 1999, replacing Shoichiro Toyota, and Fujio Cho became president. Also that year Toyota agreed to form a joint venture with Isuzu to manufacture buses, and it announced plans to invest $800 million to boost US auto production by 16% (200,000 vehicles) to about 1.45 million. In 2000 Toyota launched the Will VI, a sedan aimed at young people. It announced that it was building an online replacement parts marketplace with i2 Technology and that it had formed a financial services company (Toyota Financial Service) and a brokerage firm (Toyota Financial Services Securities Corp.). Toyota also bought a 5% stake in Yamaha (the worlds #2 motorcycle maker) and raised its stake in truck maker Hino Motors from about 20% to almost 34%. International developments included Toyotas agreement with the Chinese government to produce passenger cars for sale in China. The cars are to be built by Tianjin Toyota Motor Corp., a joint venture between Chinese carmaker Tianjin Automobile Xiali and Toyota. Early in 2001 Toyota opened a new plant in France. Later that year the company formed an agreement with PSA Peugeot Citroà «n to begin joint car production in Europe (production began in 2005). Toyota also increased its stake in Hino Motors to 50% with partners Toyoda Gosei, Ltd. and Horie Metal Co., Ltd., Toyota formed a joint venture in 2002 to manufacture resin fuel tank systems. In 2004 Toyota announced that it would establish 14 Lexus dealerships in China; the dealers were all open by mid-2005. Later in 2004 Toyota forged a joint venture agreement with Guangzhou Automobile Group Co., Ltd. to build engines in China In 2005 Toyota bought just fewer than 9% of General Motors 20% stake in Fuji Heavy Industries the Japanese maker of Subaru passenger vehicles. Satisfaction as defined: The satisfaction was â€Å"the buyers cognitive state of being adequately rewarded for the sacrifice he has undergone† (Howard and Sheth 1969, p.145). Hunt (1997b) summarised the feelings of a number of speakers at the first consumer satisfaction conference among the definitions offered were need fulfilment, pleasure/displeasure, expectation-performance interactions, evaluation of the purchase or Consumption experience, evaluation of the benefits of consumption, comparison of actual with ideal outcomes, and the Attribute â€Å"deficit/ surplus† obtained from the purchase. On the basis of the diverse views, Hunt concluded that satisfaction is an evaluation rendered that the product experience was at least as good as it was supposed to be,† in effect an â€Å"evaluation of an emotion†(pp.459-460). Satisfaction may be best understood as an evaluation of the surprise inherent in a product acquisition and/or consumption experience. In essence, it is the summary psychological state resulting when the emotion surrounding disconfirmed expectations is coupled with the consumers prior feelings about the consumption experience. (Richard L. Oliver.) When you visit your favourite restaurant, you expect to have a nice meal. That positive expectation, in itself, is a form of satisfaction. We call it anticipation-satisfaction. When the host sees you and remembers your name, thats recognition-satisfaction. Of course, once youve had that tasty, filling meal, and you feel a warm glow, that outcome is also a satisfaction. Its called need-satisfaction. What happens when youre so pleased with a restaurant that you go out of your way to rave about it to your friends? Thats referral or recommendation-satisfaction. And when the restaurant manager says, â€Å"Come again,† and you reply, â€Å"You can bet on it!† youve expressed a recommitment, or what we call, pledge-satisfaction. What happens when the owner gives you a free dessert just for being a great patron, and youre surprised and delighted about it? Thats what we refer to as surprise-satisfaction. Seeing and being seen in a trendy eatery confers an additional perk: status -satisfaction. As you can see, dining out can lead to several forms of customer satisfaction, and I havent listed half of them. Whatever our business is, we need to know whether were serving our customers as capably as we can, so which satisfaction definitions and measures should we use? Defining customer satisfaction is a very important undertaking—one that even the most customer-focused companies, fail to do. If we dont define it carefully, how can we monitor and measure it, let alone produce it on a consistent and reliable basis? If you ask most business owners how they define satisfaction, sooner or later theyll mention repeat business. Theyll ask, do customers come back and buy again? This is retention-satisfaction. Retention-satisfaction is especially significant because it can be rather easily monitored, and it can be measured in dollars and cents. But it isnt foolproof. This article entitled, â€Å"Just Because They Buy Again Doesnt Mean Theyre Satisfied.† I pointed out that clients might feel they have no other viable choice than to buy from you. Cable television customers used to fit this profile before they could sign-up for satellite-television. Customer service departments are known to track dissatisfaction more than satisfaction. Theyll carefully note every angry letter that comes in the mail, believing that there are perhaps 50 or 100 people who feel the same way, but who didnt bother to write. Paying attention to letters is fine, but the inferences we make about how many silent customers they represent, is little more than a wild hunch. Moreover, service providers shouldnt infer that the absence of angry letters implies the presence of happy customers. Instead of counting letters, Id rather monitor and interpret customer satisfaction behaviours as they occur. The best time to do this is when service transactions conclude. Why wait days or weeks to receive a letter, which only one-in-ten thousand people might write? When you monitor actual transactions, you can tap into a large, continuous universe of customers that is much more representative of feelings-at-large. For instance, we monitor and measure at least three customer behaviours: (1) Their voice inflections; (2) The language they use to express gratitude; and (3) Their pledges to do additional business after being subtly cued to indicate this intention.(To learn more about this system, please refer to my book, Monitoring, Measuring, Managing Customer Service: Jossey-Bass/JohnWiley:2000). How do you measure customer satisfaction? Is it connected to real customer value? When was the last time you seriously explored alternatives? By taking a fresh look at these questions you can create true breakthroughs. You can systematically deliver todays satisfactions while inventing tomorrow Market Definition: The automotive aftermarket is valued according to the retail selling price (RSP), including taxes, of service parts, wear tear parts, mechanical parts, tires, crash repair and consumables accessories. Service parts include filters, wiper blades, ignition plugs and engine oil components. Wear tear Parts include batteries, emission systems, brake pads discs and ride control. Mechanical parts are defined as those parts which are neither changed as part of a service are considered to be wear tear parts. These include transmission and power train parts. Crash repair includes body parts, lighting, glass, paint and solvents. Consumables include cleaners, waxes, polishes, windscreen washes and antifreeze. Accessories include in-car entertainment, alarms security, alloy wheels, storage, interiors (mats etc.) and exteriors (spoilers etc.). Labour charges and wholesale-related revenues are not included. The data only relates to the market for the repair of light vehicles (cars light commercial vehicles of up to 3.5 tonnes in weight). Any currency conversions used in the creation of this report have been calculated using constant 2004 annual average exchange rates. Market analysis: The European auto aftermarket sector reported disappointing results for 2001-2005.Annual growth remained marginal at the outset of the review period in 2002-2003, before entering a decline that is expected to last until the end of 2010.The European auto aftermarket generated total revenues of $89.7 billion in 2005, representing a compound annual rate of change (CARC) of -0.2% for the five-year period spanning 2001-2005. The slump in the market was primarily driven by decline in the German, UK and French markets. Positive growth was exhibited by the Spanish and Italian markets. Sales of mechanical parts form the leading segment in the market, generating total revenues of $27.9 billion in 2005, equivalent to 31.1% of the overall market value. In comparison, the crash repair sector was worth $19 billion, which represented a 21.1% share of the markets value. Looking forward, the European auto aftermarket is expected to decelerate from its current value growth position. With an anticipate d CARC of -0.5% over the 2005-2010 periods, the market is expected to reach a value of $87.5 billion by the end of 2010. Further decline in the French and German markets will act to undermine total revenue for the region; however, the UK market is expected to recover. Competitive landscape: In 2002, the German-based Volkswagen had the largest market share in Europe, with18.4%of new registrations. However, this was almost half a point lower than in the previous year. The company managed to keep revenues and operating costs stable over the period despite lower sales, due to price increases above inflation as well as cost-cutting measures. PSA Peugeot Citroà «n is close behind Volkswagen, and increased its market share by more than half a point in 2002. Indeed, in 2002 the Peugeot 206 overtook the VW Golf as the best-selling car in Europe. The market is highly competitive at the top end, PSA are only than three points ahead of Ford, a company which could well bounce back if its cost-cutting measures fulfil their initial promise. For all three companies, the necessity is to keep on churning out bright and successful new models, and PSA currently looks like it has the edge in terms of technology and design. Below these three companies, Renault, GM and Fiat have been loosing market share, or in Renaults case hanging on to what they have with only a thread. Fiat has suffered from flooding in one of its main parts factories, which has further set back the already beleaguered Italian car maker, but the company has not yet released details of its long-term recovery plans, if it has any. Despite the openness of European car markets, national loyalty still plays a great influence. In France, PSA and Renault lead, whereas in Germany, Italy and Spain, Volkswagen, Fiat and Seat respectively have strong positions. The smaller count ries in Europe provide an exception to this rule, as Belgium and the Netherlands have no substantial car manufacturers of their own but instead act as distribution hubs for other countries. The UK market is led by the large American companies, which cynics may say illustrates where its loyalties lie. Leadin

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Uncertain Reconciliation between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous people o

Reconciliation between Aboriginal People and Non-Aboriginal people to some extent is important towards Australia’s future. Given the past injustices involving land rights, the stolen generation and Government Policies, it illustrates that Australia has some way to go ahead of the full reconciliation between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians and that without reconciliation our future is uncertain. The Aboriginals were denied their land rights when European settlement occurred in Australia. As the Aboriginals were nomadic, the land that they lived on and moved around on soon became occupied by the Europeans. This disenabled the Aboriginals to sustain their ceremonial and cultural links with the land. Efforts to win Indigenous land back involved government policies and court acts. In 1976 Gough Whitlam introduced a Land Rights Act which made governments more aware of the issues of Aboriginal Cultural Land. With the aid of this policy Eddie Mabo was able to lead a case that was known as the Native Title. This was one of the most famous cases, the Mabo v Commonwealth, and it wa...

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Nayar of India Essay -- Sociology, Horticulture, Hinduism

The Nayar live is a caste that is located in the India state of Kerala. They are considered to be horticulturalist which is non-mechanized and non-intensive form of plant cultivation. Although, they depend on plants they do hunt and collect wild food such as fruits and nuts. The Nayar can also be considered industrialists because they either own or have some type of involvement with the many industries. In this paper you will read about their Kinship, gender relations, beliefs and values. The Nayar group within India is very different people than anyone else in the world. They consist of many types of lineages and different spectrums of wealth. They are considered to be horticultures and some are considered to be industrialists. But their families are all made up of the same ancestors. The Nayar practice Hinduism and are matrilineal. When it comes to their family unit things begin to get a little strange. Their family unit consists of brothers, sisters, and latter children. Within the old and aristocratic families sometimes the households would consist of fifty to eighty people all the way up to two hundred people. The Nayars undivided family may live under the same roof but the males have to occupy other rooms separate from the females. But if a particular family is considered to be rich the males may live within a neighboring compound. The Muttam is a closed piece of ground that is located in front of the families’ house (Panikkar, 1918). Sometimes this piece of land is used as an ornamental garden and no men are allowed to step foot on this particular piece of ground. Even though the men are not allowed on that piece of ground the children are allowed to play in it during the day but by night the females perform their da... ... railway also brought coconuts and pepper for export as well as the cashew which was the first introduced by the Portuguese and became a very important cash crop. Rice among other imports has become greatly needed from Europe. Since all the new trade the larger villages have started selling of British or American toilet articles, glass, metal ware and other goods (Gough, 1952). The Nayars have a generation type system of kinship. So they can organize by sex, age and gender which are the most important principals. Although they quite frequently over turn their lineage affiliations so they can perform rituals. So as you can see the Nayars are an odd group but rather interesting. They have rituals that they follow and adhere to in their daily lives. The Nayar also do rituals and traditions that we as Americans would not even think about doing in our own lives.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Power of the Mind Revealed in Albert Camus The Guest Essay -- Albert

Power of the Mind Revealed in Albert Camus' â€Å"The Guest† In â€Å"The Guest†, a short story written by Albert Camus, Camus uses his views on existentialism to define the characters’ values. Camus’ effective use of descriptive words and individual thoughts and actions allows the reader to understand and sympathize with the characters’ judgments of one another, predominantly pertaining to the characters Daru and the Arab. Daru’s responses to the Arab and his decisions, Camus’ description of the Arab, and the Arab’s respect for Daru, prove that there is a basic goodness in humans, allowing them to accept responsibility and consequences for their acts of free will. In â€Å"The Guest†, Daru forms his own opinion about the Arab based on his personal morals, even though the Arab is given qualities that brand him a problematic character. Camus uses intensely descriptive words to describe the Arab’s stinging appearance. â€Å"†¦the whole face had a restless and rebellious look that struck Daru when the Arab, turning his face toward him, looked him straight in the eyes† (318). Even with these seemingl...

Monday, September 16, 2019

Measurements of physical characteristics Essay

Measurements of physical characteristics are used widely in everyday human life, whether in household or industrial processes, in service or in scientific researches. Some of the main categories of regularly measured parameters are weight, length, area, volume, temperature, density, concentration, voltage, amperage and power. Measurement units historically differed from nation to nation, but over time there is a straight tendency for unification of units. Metric system is recognized as universal in ever-growing number of countries and this allows to minimize differences and errors in international scientific, trade and other types of communications. In metric system, meter, its multiples and fractionals are used for the measurements of length, square meter and its derivates are for measurements of area, cubic meter – for measurements of volume. For measuring temperature there are Celsius or Fahrenheit degrees used, for measuring density – kilogram per cubic meter. Voltage in international metric system is measured in volts, amperage – in amperes, and watts are used for measuring power. To perform measurements one needs to have appropriate instruments. These instruments should have accuracy grade acceptable for the type and purpose of measurements that will be performed. When measurement of length is performed, the only kind of instruments needed is tape-measure or straight scale, if size of measured object is relatively small. If distance that has to be measured is large, and surface between starting and finishing points is not smooth, more sophisticated instruments will be needed to perform required measurements. Measurements of area and volume will sometimes require certain calculations in addition to direct measurements. If measurement of an area of regular shape is performed, it is enough to measure length of the sides of that area and then apply relatively simple formulas for calculation of that area. But if the area measured has irregular shape with edges of bizarre form, calculations will be far more complex and may require solution of integral equations to determine approximate size of an area in question. When it is necessary to measure volume of a liquid, volumetric glassware is enough. But when the volume of a body with complex form shall be calculated, procedure of measurement may become much more complicated. If the body with unknown volume is available for direct measurement, it may be submerged into the water or any other liquid and volume of displaced liquid that is equal to the volume of that body, could be measured. But if that body is not available for direct measurement and is given in form of a scheme with known parameters measured or set beforehand, then rather complicated calculations may be required to estimate the volume of a said body. Density of a liquid may be measured using special instrument called densitometer, which is based on displacement of a certain amount of liquid by the weight of the instrument. The higher density of examined liquid, the smaller will be volume of liquid displaced. For estimation of the density of gases or solid bodies another methods shall be applied, because displacement-based densitometry cannot be applied to non-liquid substances. Measurements of mass and volume are usually performed, and density then is calculated using the simple formula of mass divided by volume. Temperature can be measured using thermometers of different types – liquid-filled, electric, etc. Electric parameters like amperage, voltage and power, could be measured either directly using specific measuring devices, or indirectly by measuring related parameters and later calculating values of parameters required. For a list of physical parameters there are specific units in the system of measurements. Some of the examples were given above. For another example, unit for measuring force is newton, and unit for pressure is pascal. Certain parameters can be formulated indirectly through other units. Speed, for example, is defined as unit of distance passed per unit of time, and acceleration – as rate of change of speed per unit of time. Consequently, force that influences a body, may be calculated through known mass of the body, its beginning speed and rate of change of its speed under the influence of the force studied. Unfortunately, measurements can never provide us with absolute values of parameter we are interested in. Due to imperfection of both human perception, instruments for measurements and because of influence of unstable environmental conditions upon the instrument, body that is subjected to measurements and the person performing measurements, some imprecision will always be present. Additionally, when performing measurements, observer sometimes has to use estimated data because more or less precious values can not be obtained under current conditions. Or maybe high precision values of a given parameter are not important for the current task. Either way, estimation of measured data sometimes takes place, as well as certain ever-present

Rhetorical Analysis: Too Much of a Good Thing

Rhetorical Analysis: Too Much of a Good Thing â€Å"At least 25% of all Americans under age nineteen are overweight or obese, a figure that has doubled over the last 30 years. † says Greg Crister in his article titled â€Å"Too Much of a Good Thing† which appeared on July 22, 2001 in the Los Angeles Times. In his article, Crister uses three common rhetorical strategies, ethos, pathos, and logos, in an attempt to persuade his audience, anyone raising children or interested in children's health issues, of how prevalent this epidemic has become and provide them with some solutions as to how they can help prevent childhood obesity.Overall, Crister's argument succeeds and his audience walks away convinced that childhood obesity is, in fact, an epidemic that plagues children in their own country and that they must act immediately themselves to help fight the fight and insure that it does not become a problem with their own children. One common rhetorical strategy is ethos, wh ich is the use of credible sources to support a claim.Since Crister is a writer and not an expert on childhood obesity himself, it is important that he uses creditable sources to persuade the audience of the epidemic that childhood obesity is becoming. Crister uses ethos very well in his argument by providing current findings from reliable sources that are relevant to the immediate problem of childhood obesity. At the beginning of his article, Crister says, â€Å"Obesity,' the U. N. roclaim[s], ‘is the dominant unmet global health issue, with Westernized countries topping the list. † It is a common belief that the United Nations predominately only deals with epidemics that plague children in third world countries so by bringing to the audience's attention that the U. N. is now focusing on the United States, Crister encourages them to look closer to home to see what an immediate crisis that childhood obesity has become.By making the audience aware that childhood obesity is being treated as an epidemic by a trustworthy and knowledgeable organization such as the United Nations, Crister succeeds in persuading his audience that this is a serious issue in their own country and they are more likely to want to do whatever they can to prevent childhood obesity since it could affect their own children rather than children on the other side of the world. The rhetorical strategy pathos means to appeal to the audience's emotions when making an argument and one way in which Crister uses pathos effectively is by his word choice.In his article, Crister says, â€Å"Closer to home, at least 25% of all Americans under age nineteen are overweight or obese, a figure that has doubled over the last 30 years and a figure that moved the surgeon general to declare childhood obesity an epidemic. † Knowing that, generally, parents only want the best for their children, Crister use of descriptive words, such as calling childhood obesity an epidemic, invokes a negative reaction in his audience and causes their protective, parental instincts to immediately kick in.Most parents could never fathom their own child might be part of an epidemic of any kind so by referring to the fact that childhood obesity is becoming an epidemic itself, Crister creates a sense of urgency in his audience that in turn makes them want to act on their protective instincts by helping to prevent the spread of this epidemic. In keeping with his strong use of word choice, Crister also uses the word gluttony twice in his article and even elaborates by pointing out that gluttony is â€Å"vilified as one of the seven deadly sins. Again, the use of such strong language causes the audience take notice of the severity of childhood obesity and makes them want to do whatever they can to prevent it so that their own children are not considered gluttons or part of an epidemic. Another rhetorical strategy is logos, which means using logic, common sense, and reason to appeal to an audien ce. In his article, Crister uses logic to provide some solutions to help prevent childhood obesity as well as discredited some long-standing myths on how these solutions might not work.One solution that Crister offers is when he points out the importance of teaching good eating habits early on so that overeating, one of the main causes of obesity, can be avoided. To help persuade the audience that this is an important step to take, Crister discredits the common misconception among parents that children will stop eating once they are full. Crister mentions a study led by Barbara Rolls, a nutritional scholar at Pennsylvania State University, in which she observed the eating habits of two groups of children.Rolls found that the three year old group would stop eating once they were full, regardless of how much food they were given, but the five year old group would continue to eat, long after they were full, until everything on their plate was gone. This study helps persuade the audienc e that what they believed to be true about the eating habits of children might not be true after all and that it is their job to help their children learn how to develop good eating habits at an early age.Crister goes on to point out that parents are led to believe that restricting a child's diet will cause them to, in turn, overeat. In an effort to explain this to his audience Crister says, â€Å"The operative notion is that a child restrained from overeating will either rebel by secretly gorging when away from the table or, worse, will suffer such a loss of self-esteem that a lifetime of disastrous eating behavior will follow. † Another solution that Crister offers is to stigmatize overeating. He says, â€Å"Of course, no one should be stigmatized for being overweight.But stigmatizing the unhealthful behaviors that cause obesity would conform with what we know about effective health messages. † This helps his audience see that stigmatizing overweight people might be detrimental but stigmatizing overeating itself might be one of the most logical solutions in preventing childhood obesity. Crister also notes that in the early 20th century France, when first faced with the excessive weight gain among children, they adopted the belief that meals should always be supervised by adults, food should be served in moderate proportions, and second helpings should be rare.The French are often stereotyped for being some of the most confident people in the world so Crister ends his article with the logical, yet tongue-in-cheek statement that, †[The French] were taught in childhood not to overeat. And it didn't seem to do much harm to their self-esteem. † This quote combined with his use of logos works well for Crister's argument because they make his audience realize that what they have been led to believe in the past about restricting a child's eating habits and how children approach eating in general might not, in fact, be true.By discrediting a ll of these myths, Crister's persuades his audience that they must take responsibility in teaching their children good eating habits early on in their lives and they become more comfortable with the idea that stigmatizing overeating as well as restricting their own child's eating are other ways in which they can do their part in preventing childhood obesity.Overall, Crister's uses of ethos, pathos, and logos succeed in persuading his audience what an epidemic that childhood obesity has become and they walk with a couple of solutions to help them act immediately in helping to prevent this epidemic in their own children or children in this country. Works Cited Crister, Greg. â€Å"Too Much of a Good Thing. † Los Angeles Times 22 July 2001. 16 November 2012 .

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Awareness of health and safety trainings Essay

Without the correct level of training you are not allowed to carry out certain tasks relating to Health and Safety. Here are a few examples: †¢Moving and handling †¢Administering medication †¢Emergency first aid †¢Giving injections †¢Peg feeding †¢Colostomy †¢Fighting fire If you are unsure about what you can and cannot do, you must discuss this with your supervisor / manager. Where and from whom additional support and information relating to Health and Safety can be accessed? †¢The Health and Safety at Work Act requires employers to ensure workers are appropriately knowledgeable about Health and Safety and that they are properly trained in relevant areas. Your employer may have a health and safety representative who is responsible for health and safety issues at work. Ask your supervisor or manager about the Health and Safety policies and procedures in your work place. The main points of Health and Safety policies and procedures †¢To secure the health, safety and welfare of persons at work. †¢To protect other people from hazards arising from work. †¢To control the keeping and use of dangerous substances and materials, including explosives and highly flammable materials. †¢To control the emission of noxious substances from certain premises. †¢It shall be the duty of every employer to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health and safety and welfare at work of all his employees. Examples of the subjects that should have Health and Safety policies and procedures: †¢Moving and handling of people and objects †¢Personal hygiene †¢Infection control †¢Personal safety and lone working †¢Fire safety †¢Food safety and hygiene †¢What to do in the event of an emergency †¢Risk assessments †¢Smoking at work †¢Display Screen Equipment (DSE) for people working with computers †¢Use of chemicals and waste disposal †¢Security measures and visitors

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Discuss the appeal of ‘The Crucible’ Essay

English Literature Coursework: ‘The Crucible’ by Arthur Miller Discuss the appeal of ‘The Crucible’ to its audience ‘The Crucible’ is a 20th century play that focuses on the Salem witchcraft trials of 1692. These events led to mass hysteria over the persecution of those who, allegedly, participated in acts of incantation. Over-exaggeration, emotion, tautness, suspense and the eradication of characters (due to their alleged involvement in witchcraft) are the main themes of the play throughout the four volatile scenes of ‘The Crucible’. The audience observing would be enticed by the mood swings of characters and their persecution for such crimes in the theocratic village, where interrogated citizens in the dense society were forced to name other possible witches. If they failed to produce names of others, they would be hanged ruthlessly. The inhabitants of Salem believed in witches and the Devil and that the Bible had instructed them that witches must be hanged. A feeling of inequity is sensed here. The events of the play, first performed in England in 1954, are analogous to the McCarthy era in the USA , where anyone suspected of criticising the government or its direction was to be brought before a court to respond to the charge of ‘Un-American Activities’. The opening scene in ‘The Crucible’ immediately gives the audience a feeling of a sinister and lifeless atmosphere: A candle still burns near the bed †¦ The roof rafters are exposed, and the wood colours are raw and unmellowed. Reverend Parris is discovered †¦ , evidently in prayer. His daughter †¦ is lying on the bed, inert. (Act One, p1) The candle beside the bed indicates a slight source of light, perhaps hope that Betty will wake. The environment around is silent. The rafters are bare, and the wood is: ‘raw’. The Reverend is peacefully in prayer and his daughter is lying, as if lifeless, on the bed. A prayer is a silent act which emphasises the mood of the room. The imagery illustrates a dark, dull and demoralising sector of the Reverend’s home. The description of the stage in the opening scene creates a false impression for the audience as the majority observing the play would now expect a lethargic plot, with limited excitement and monotonous dialogue with little emotion, but actually it is a play full of overdramatic behaviour and emotion.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Current events Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Current events - Coursework Example The report likewise revealed that Gore sought forgiveness from the Elliot family and also narrated the violent incidents surrounding the murders. One strongly believes that capital punishment served in this situation provide increasing evidence for debating on its continued enforcement. The family of Lynn Elliott, in this case, has indicated looking forward to seeing Gore die, as the form of justice being served for murdering their daughter. Other relatives of the girls who were raped and murdered by Gore likewise expressed the same support. However, other civil rights groups have advocated for the abolition of capital punishment. The article effectively narrated events that provided justified rationales for murdered victims’ support to enforce capital punishment for the convicted criminals who were found to violate and strip the rights of their victims to have enjoyed a productive life. As disclosed, â€Å"family members of the victim watched as the drugs began flowing but made no immediate statement as they left after the execution was carried out† (Associated Press, 2012, par. 6). Awaiting for justice to be s erved was their ultimate goal. Associated Press. (2012, April 12). Fla serial killer executed for girls 1983 death. Retrieved April 12, 2012, from

Thursday, September 12, 2019

The Curia Regis in 13th century Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The Curia Regis in 13th century - Essay Example These two major sections are the Bench, which was later known as the Court of Common Pleas. The first section comprised of most of the civil cases, and this was said to be the most-busy medieval court. (Public Records: Common Law Records) The second section was the King's Bench, where pleas were put to the ears of the king. This was called the 'Coram Rege'. This influenced the criminal cases, i.e. the crown side, or pleas of the crown, and also looked into few civil cases mostly those which involved the violation of the king's peace (Public Records: Common Law Records) The common law is a group of legal discretion of each and every legal system that has in recent times reached a level of involvedness. Because of its special characteristic features, the common law is stated to be a body of rule which at no cost can be matched with another similar body of rule belonging to the same legal system. The common law comprises of a precise body of contents which is applied generally outside any particular category. Thus the contents of the common law are not constant and it varies accordingly. (Common Law). During the Renaissance and Reformation period of the European history it was found to be an age of profound revolutionary change. There cannot be any revolution which is understood without analyzing the destruction and modification that preceded them. Only in possession of the knowledge of the middle Ages, the concept of Renaissance and the Reformation could be understood and welcomed. The western European society during the middle ages contributed to a large segment of population which comprised of the tillers of the soil, and the main basis of wealth and political power was the land. The Industry and commerce were not given a significant importance. This was due to the pursuits that prevailed during the Roman times or were to be prevalent in the modern era. Thus there was a term which took its origin in the recent times to describe the type of government that existed in the medieval Europe. This term was called 'feudalism'. (Medieval Civilization and Institutions) The origin of feudalism was put to great debate whether it originated from the Romans or the Germans The response to this question or debate was that feudalism originated from the Germans and later was also put into practice by the Romans. The medieval feudalism was accustomed to a state of society where the land was the source of wealth and the military force which was the basis of power consequently blocking the agrarian society. Further after the breakdown of Rome, and when Western Europe was subject to attacks by Moslems, Norsemen, and Hungarians, the concept of feudalism took shape. This concept could be said successful in maintaining order, until when the thirteenth century came to an end. It was followed throughout in the West and in some areas, particularly Italy where it did not ever take deep roots. Thus only with the help of the oldest inhabitants of a given area, the law applicable to it need not be made, but had to be found. This information could be given by the earlies t uses of the jury, which means a sworn body of men. (Medieval Civilization and Institutions) During the thirteenth-century, the appeal by the king's courts, were of first importance for legal historians and all researchers who were in the

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Labour Law (feminism) [ question in the box ] Essay

Labour Law (feminism) [ question in the box ] - Essay Example , self-employed and assumed all economic risks with respect to her earnings.1 This case reveals the complexities of the debate over the feasibility of considering sex workers who are by and large ‘service providers’ in an entertainment industry as employees and in doing so engages the feminist debate over whether or not sex workers are legitimate employees.2 The feminist debate on sex work is divided into two opposing views. On the one hand, radical feminists view sex work as nothing more than a facilitator of male ‘sexual aggression’ against women.3 Indeed the male power theme associated with prostitution is captured by those who liken prostitution with slavery and thus conjures up reflections of white slavery. However, within the European Union (EU), anti-prostitution policies are typically aimed at eliminating street prostitution and treating prostitution as a public nuisance that is primarily an involuntary career choice.4 On the other hand, post-modern liberal feminists argue that women are free to do as they wish with their ‘own bodies and sexuality’.5 Thus liberal feminists take the position that sex workers are voluntarily engaged in sex work and in should be protected as any other worker should be. Thus from the radical feminists’ perspective, sex work should be banned. From the perspective of the postmodern liberal feminists, sex work is a valid and legitimate form of work and should therefore be regulated as such.6 The radical feminists’ perspective hinges on abrogation which is influenced by dominance feminist theory which views sex work as an exploitation of women.7 Postmodern liberal feminists on the other hand propose a ‘theoretical model of sex-worker rights’.8 However, when the definition of employee is taken into account, the feasibility of sex-worker rights is questionable. This is because an employee by definition is an individual requiring protection from an employer who is in turn obligated to protect his or her

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Gerry Mulligan Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Gerry Mulligan - Research Paper Example His pianoless quartet performance with a famous trumpeter named Chet Baker in the 1950s has been appreciated of being one of his brilliant works ever. Other than being an impressive saxophonist, he was a brilliant pianist as well. Early life According to Mulligan, there were two things that helped him pursue such a successful career; a vision and a massive amount of guts. Both these things had a major contribution in impressing Warrington, a bandleader, and convinced him to believe that Mulligan had the potential to excel well in the field of music. He therefore, not only bought him arrangements but also gave him both critical yet productive criticism regarding his career. Following that, Mulligan organized for two bands that were led by important people like Tommy Tucker and Elliot Lawrence. Since Mulligan had three brothers and hence, a large family for his mother to look after, his mother chose to employ Lily Rose as their nanny. Lily Rose was African – American and very fo nd of playing the piano. She was the one who instigated Mulligan’s love for music when he used to spend time with her watching her play. Also, while staying at Rose’s place, he got the chance to meet a lot many black musicians who used to stay at her place when in town since the motels would not accommodate them in those days. In his early life, his family moved around a lot all over the country with stops made in the following order; southern New Jersey and Chicago, followed by Illinois, Kalamazoo and lastly, Michigan. It was sometime in 1940s that he first played in a concert. This concert was held at Philadelphia’s Music Academy, where he was accompanied by Sarah Vaughan, Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie Parker, all of whom turned out to brilliant musicians later on. Among these, Mulligan became closes to Parker since he not only encouraged him well on his first performance but also helped him recover a lost tenor which he was afraid that he had lost and also invi ted him to attend jam sessions with him. Mulligan officially started playing for orchestras at the age of nineteen. These were for people called Gene Krupa and Claude Thornhill. It was at this point also that he started correlating his music skills with important musicians from the past such as John Lewis and George Russell and made himself capable of touching new boundaries. Rise to fame When Mulligan first came to New York, he was clearly astonished of the originality the city offered. But he soon realized that even the best musicians had to strive to make a living in that city. So it was in 1951 that he moved to the west in the pursuit of better chances, playing his music all along the way as he traveled through the country. In the same year, he created his first ever piano less quartet that later and still has had a massive amount of impact for many jazz musicians that have followed him which includes bands like Art Farmers and Zoot Sims. He also formed a band of four which was successful in gaining much popularity in terms of Jazz music all along the west coast. Duke Ellington was Mulligan’s favorite composer and that is exactly why he often paired up with him for tours. They both shared a chemistry so strong that every time they went on stage, they performed wonders. Ellington was the same person who composed one of Mulligan’s most famous works called the ‘Prima Bara Dubla’ (Klinkowitz 65).A predicament that Mulligan faced during his musical

Monday, September 9, 2019

Does the EU need politicization Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Does the EU need politicization - Essay Example The fundamental question which must be addressed before embarking upon the launch of measures to politicize the EU is rather straightforward and is rooted in a legitimate concern of the stakeholders which are somehow affected by the functioning of the politico-economic union of several European nations. This question aims to explore whether the EU essentially needs and require politicization. For the purposes of comprehensively and critically examining this fundamental aspect, this paper integrates positions of renowned scholars on the topic so as to reach at objective and viable conclusions with regard to inquiry. According to De Wilde and Zurn (2012), the onset of politicization is a direct outcome of the rising power and authoritative position which is currently possessed by the EU. It should be noted with reference to this claim that the possible increase in this authoritative stature of the union has been prompted by two critical events – the failure of the Constitution Treaty and the inception of the financial crisis which hit the region. For scholars such as Statham and Trenz (2012), the agenda of politicization has reached a stage where its effects can be characterized as palpable and where its eventual progression appears to be foreseeable. Despite of these observations it is important to identify whether this particular measure appears to be the only viable and feasible answer for effectively resolving the problems of the European Union? In their comprehensive and insightful research on the issue of politicization surrounding the European Union (EU), Magnette and Papadopoulos (2008) adopt a neutral stance on the position of renowned scholars Hix and Bartolini and rightly classify the issue of EU’s politicization as a supposed solution for the imminent problems which are being faced by the union. This notion postulates that rather than blatantly disapproving or approving of this

Sunday, September 8, 2019

MIDTERM Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

MIDTERM - Essay Example Since the parents are suffering from the overwhelming stress, they do not interact with the children and as a result the children are lagging way behind the other children of their age with regards to language speaking. Moreover the children are shy and timid and are not at ease when expressing their feelings and ideas. The condition of the children is understandable because the type of environment they are having at their home is not suitable for developing their language, communication and expressive skills. Solution The solution to the problem; slow growth of language and communication in the children, is by improving the way their parents interact with them. The frequency of reading to them needs to be increased however the way that reading is done is more important. Dialogic Reading is the solution to the problem faced by this family. This method of reading is good for these children for two reasons: 1. Since the children are shy and timid, they need to interact more. Dialogic r eading is better than common method of reading because in dialogic reading the interaction level between the storyteller i.e. the parents in this case and the listener i.e. the child, is very high as compared to common reading in which the child only listens. Dialogic Reading ultimately turns the child into the story teller. 2. In Dialogic Reading the child not only just listens, but also starts questioning, reasoning and becomes more expressive. Since the children in this family do not interact frequently and lack the confidence to speak, Dialogic Reading can substantially increase their confidence level. Importance of Dialogic Reading The parents need to know the importance and usefulness of the dialogic reading. I would explain to them the importance of dialogic reading by convincing them to first analyze the state of their children. I would tell them that the children are shy and timid and have language delays because they are not getting the sufficient time to interact. The par ents can understand the importance of dialogic reading by considering the fact that reading with the children is certainly more effective than reading at them. While conducting Dialogic Reading the parents make the children to ask them questions about the story and make them tell the story. This allows children to develop better observational and verbal skills. Parents should know that dialogic reading expands the knowledge of the children as they share the parents share the knowledge with the children about what the child is looking at. The most convincing thing that I can tell the parents is the fact that Dialogic Reading is having a conversation about a story with the child as opposed to just telling a story. Practicing Dialogic Reading The parents need to know a proper way of practicing Dialogic Reading for getting the desired results. I would tell the parents to base their practice of dialogic reading on three basic principles: 1. Encouraging child to become an active learner d uring book reading. 2. Providing feedback that models more sophisticated language 3. Challenging the child’s knowledge and skill by raising the complexity of the conversation gradually Moreover parents can use the techniques of CROWD and PEER for practicing dialogic reading. These two acronyms explain the methodology for correct execution of Dialogic Readin